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1세 제브준단바호톡토와 17세기 할하 몽골
Jebzundamba Qutuɣtu I and the Qalq-a Mongol in the 17th century

金成修  
  • 초록

    The Jebzundamba Qutuɣtu is one of the famous lineage of incarnations, the so called "Living Buddha", like as the Dalai Lama and the Panchen Erdeni. It was started from 1635 in the Mongolia, and officially ended at 1924, when Jebzundamba Qutuɣtu Ⅷ passed away. Although Jebzundamba QutuɣtuⅨ, living at Dharamsala in India, was recognized as the incarnation of Jebzundamba Qutuɣtu Ⅷ by Dalai Lama Ⅹ Ⅳ, but now most of Mongolian deny his legitimacy. But during the existence of this lineage "Jebzundamba Qutuɣtu", about three centuries, it was recognized as the symbol of Mongolian buddhism, and nationalism by the Mongolian themselves. Especially in the seventeenth century, Jebzundamba Qutuɣtu Ⅰ made very important historical role in the Mongolian history. As the first incarnation of this lineage, and as the descendant of Abadai Qaɣan, established the Left Wing of Qalq-a Mongol, he was born with the important position in the system of the dual custom of church and state "Qoyar Yosu". Since the late of sixteenth century, Tibetan buddhism had been re-propagated into the Mongolian tribes. In that era, they started to reconstruct the authority of ancient order through the cult of Qinggis Qaɣan, at the same time, through the tibeto-mongolian relationship, the leaders of Mongolian tribes wanted to be an Cakravartin raja in the Buddhist World Order, like as Qubilai. So particularly, in the era of Turned Altan Qaɣan, Tibetan buddhism had been identified as an vehicle for the restoration of the ancient order originated from "The Great Mongolian Empire", established by Qinggis Qaɣan, among the Mongols. For the legacy of Mongolian history, the Reformation of Mongol nation state was based on the ancient empire in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. In this period, several Mongolian political leaders, for example Altan Qaɣan, Abadai Qaɣan, Ligden Qaɣan, G梟si Qaɣan, made relationship with the dGe-lugs-pa, even though they also had related with another sects of Tibetan buddhism. Why had the dGe-lugs-pa successively been propagated in the Mongolia? Besides of the mission of Dalai LamaⅢ among the Mongols, we have to consider the development of the system for incarnation in Mongolia. Actually, this system was a very important strategy for the dGe-lugs-pa"s expansion among the Mongols. From the another side, faced with the great changes under "the new era of Tibetan Buddhism", Mongols also needed some incarnations as an effective assistant in the system of the dual custom of church and state "Qoyar Yosu", and also as an connector between the secular and the religious authorities. Because of these reasons above mentioned, there had emerged some lineages of incarnations in the Mongolia, and most of them came from Altan Obug "descendants of Qinggis Qaɣan". Jebzundamba Qutuɣtu is a typical case of Mongolian incarnation lineage emerged in the seventeenth century. In fact, the emergence and development of Jebzundamba Qutuɣtu Ⅰ was firmly related with the political power of his tribe "the Left Wing T?iyet?Qaɣan of Qalq-a Mongol", the descendents of Abadai Qaɣan. According to his biography by Lobsangprinlai and some another historical materials, he was recognized as an incarnation of jam-dbyang-chos-rje by Dalai Lama Ⅴ, established the monastery "bras-spungs in Lhasa. After his return from the journey around Tibet and Qinghai(Amdo), he established the monastery "Libogejailing" according to the system of the "bras-spungs. So we can confirm, in the seventeenth century, he was a bridge between the dGe-lugs-pa and the Qalq-a Mongol. But in the previous studies about Jebzundamba Qutuɣtu Ⅰ, he was described as a..


  • 주제어

    제브준단바호톡토 .   할하 몽골 .   게룩바 교단 .   활불전제도 .   청조 .   Jebzundamba Qutuɣtu .   Qalq-a .   dGe-lugs-pa .   the Qing dynasty.  

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