명 중기의 賣牒制 연구
A Study on Maidiezhi(賣牒制) - the Policy on the Selling of Buddhist Monk Qualification Certificates in the Middle of Ming Dynasty -
Zhuyuanzhang(朱元璋), Ming(明)"s founding father and first emperor, had a special religious and political ideology which was based on the Unification of Three Religions(三敎合一) such religions as Confucianism, Buddhism, Taoism. And so, his buddhist approach was based on in this unifying-oriented movement about religions. In order to control all the temples and buddhists in the dynasty, at the 14 years of his reign, he founded Senglusi(僧錄司: the Supervise Administration of Buddhism and Taoism) in Nanjing(南京), and did several agencies in the lower provincial sects such as Fu(府), Zhou(州) and Xian(縣). Furthermore, Only one great temple could be selected to dispense Authorized Buddhist Certification Seal"s Sale within Fu, Zuou and Xian, and Only one master about the buddhist texts could be selected to the Authorized Buddhist Certification Seal. After him, emperor Yingledi(永樂帝) ordered to extend the issue period about Authorized Buddhist Certification Seal from three to five years in order to prevent the growing of buddhist numbers. In the reign of Yingzong(英宗), firstly juannazhi(捐納制: the substitution system of forced labor duty) began to collect relief funds of famine. But after Tumu Incident(土木堡 樂), that had caused national insecurity, juannazhi had been largely enforced to supply and use in the military expenditure. Also, within this system, the Authorized Buddhist Certification Seal"s Sale had been enlarged. As the Authorized Buddhist Certification Seal"s Sale was increased, early Ming " s buddhist laws could not keep their original forms. Traditionally, There were many kinds of the Authorized Buddhist Certification Seal"s Sale in the Ming"s dynasty. In addition to these traditional customs, one unique buddhist seal sale happened. it was the eunuch whose power became more and more powerful during Ming dynasty. They also had sold the Authorized Buddhist Certification Seal. Most of them believed in buddhism. And so they eagerly slod the Seal to the monks. Moreover, They had many buddhists temples in the nearing areas of the capital, Beijing, to go the Paradise Heaven(極樂) after the death of their bodies and souls. On the while, in the middle period of Ming"s dynasty, the badly-balanced distribution made many people poor, which eventually destroyed Ming"s traditional Rural System. Also, this dynasty had to prevent northern invaders who, after Tumun Incident, penetrated the dynasty"s inner parts. Therefore, Ming had reconstructed between the Northern and the Capital Defense Systems. So, a lot of money was needed. One plan was to sold the Authorized Buddhist Certification Seal"s Sale to the buddhists monks. But, so many sales of the Seals led to diminish Ming"s traditional standard Tax System such tax unites as general people tax unit(民戶), soldier unit(軍戶), craft unit(匠戶) and salter unit(竈戶), etc. And so, Ming"s first king, Hongwu(洪武) enforced through the Chinese Traditional Nation Laws(祖法)to diminish the buddhists" exemption of many kind of taxes. Finally, emperors" court protested that buddhist policy should be revised to prevent buddhists from intervening empire"s various aspects. For example, buddhists used to rush into capital areas. and they in these sections would rise wheat price, sometimes they became a theft, moreover, they caused to incite people"s disturbances. Specially, I agreed in this article to Mano Senryu(間野潛龍), a well-known historian, who said that this dynasty"s renewal emperor, Xiaozong(孝宗)'s radical buddhist policy was based on not disusing all the temple in the dynasty but prohibiting new buddhists temples" construction. And so, I insisted that the Authorized Buddhist Certification Seal"s Sale was continued through this middle period of the dynasty.
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