洋務運動期 民族意識 發展의 一端 - 同治末ㆍ光緒初의 國權과 華僑問題 認識을 중심으로
"Incipient Nationalism" in China - Issues of National Interest and Chinese Residents Overseas during the Late Tongzhi and Early Guangxu Period -
In historical context, Sino-centrism was so flexible that it could had been sustained even in the period of military conquest of Chinese mainland by the northern nomadic peoples, by asserting that the essence of Chinese superiority lay in culture. With the intrusion of Western forces in the 19th century, however, such Sino-centrism gradually came to face serious challenges. As a result, there began to emerge new concerns for national interest and nationality, especially beginning in the late Tongzhi and early Guangxu period. During that period, with the task of "pacifying the exterior"(安外) looming large amid the restrengthening of foreign aggressions, efforts to reinforce China"s defense capabilities both in inland frontiers and coastal areas continued, bringing in considerable results. Also in domestic politics there proceeded rather noteworthy improvements since the importance of "self-rule"(自治) came to be reemphasized in relation to the desired "self-strengthening." In relation with such developments, efforts at adjusting foreign policies started during just that period. Their primary aim was to protect and recover national interests as well as to enhance national prestige in the face of the strengthened aggressions from the Western and some other neighboring countries. Such efforts now came to be made rather notedly as to revise the existing unequal treaties with the West, along with attempts to promote commercial and industrial interests of China. In addition, overseas Chinese, both laborers and merchants, formerly considered as "abandoned people"(棄民), now came to be regarded as "Chinese subjects and offspring"(臣民赤子). So measures to protect them and to utilize their wealth for famine relief and maritime defense began to be launched in earnest, accompanied by the establishment of consulates in major foreign cities. Also in relation with some neighboring tributary nations such as Korea, more aggressive policies came to be adopted, especially after Japanese annexation of Liuqiu Kingdom in 1879. Such developments the author thinks can be termed "incipient nationalism", which paved way for the more full-fledged nationalistic efforts after the defeat in the 1894-95 Sino-Japanese War. In all, the significance of such "incipient nationalism" which took concrete form during the early Guangxu period cannot be disregarded in that it broadened the scope of the Self-strengthening Movement.
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