戒生編鐘과 晉姜鼎 銘文 및 그 歷史的 意義
The “Rongsheng bianzhong” and “Jin Jinag ding” Inscriptions and Their Historical Significance
The "Rongsheng bianzhong" 戒生編鐘, retrieved recently by the Baoli Art Museum 保利藝術博物館 in Beijing, has long inscriptions of 154 characters. The inscription says that King Mu 穆 (956-918 B.C.) enfeoffed the august ancestor (huangzu 皇族) of Rongsheng, Xian Gong 憲公, to the outside of the royal domain (probably present-day southwestern Shanxi) to rule the non-Zhou people, Man 蠻 and Rong 戎. Rongsheng"s father, Zhao Bo 昭伯, followed respectfully the king's command to assist a jin Lord 晉候. Relying on the military provisions his father had reserved, Rongsheng conquered Fantang 繁湯 successfully and acquired metals there. By using them, he cast the harmonized bells. It is very interesting to note that the "Jin Jiang ding" 晉姜鼎 of the early Chunqiu period also has a similar inscription. Analyzing the previous Chinese scholarships on the inscriptions, this article studies the dating and historical significance of the "Rongsheng bianzhong" inscription. Because of the military campaigns against Fantang documented in both inscriptions, Li Xueqin proposes that the two vessels were cast in the same year, possibly 740 B.C. Believing that the campaign against Fantang occurred several times in ancient times, however, Ma Chengyuan and Qiu Xigui argue that the similarity in the inscriptions does not necessarily proves the identical date of the inscriptions. They date the bell to the reign of King Li 厲, (857/53-842/28 B.C.) or even earlier. Although Qiu Xigui eminently finds some remarkable new trends dateable to the early Chunqiu period in the calligraphy of the two inscriptions, he interprets the similarity not as a sign of the contemporaneity but as a regional peculiarity. Qiu generally considers the "Rongsheng bianzhong" as a part of Jin vessels. However, the author points out a critical problem that misled Ma and Qiu to the earlier dating. Following the general usage of huangzu in bronze inscriptions as "the great deceased grandfather," they believe that the huangzu of Rongsheng, Xian Gong, should be his grandfather. Since Xian Gong is said to have been established by King Mu, Rongsheng"s lifetime cannot go three or four generations after King Mu"s reign, that is, at the latest, that of King Li. However, some bronze inscriptions in the Chunqiu period such as the "Jin Gong fen" and the "Qin Gong gui" clearly show a different usage of huangzu, as a founder or general ancestor of a family. This leads the author to date Zhao Bo, the father of Rongsheng, to the late Western Zhou and Rongsheng to the early Chunqiu period. But unlike the "Jin Jiang ding" which was cast after the death of Wen Hou, the "Rongsheng bianzhong" is dateable to his reign. This dating corresponds well with the important role the state of Jin, led by Wen Hou 文候 (780-746 B.C.), played during the Eastward Evacuation of King Ping 平 and his settlement in the eastern capital, Chengzhou 成周. As traditional texts document Wen Hou"s great achievements assisting the king, Rongsheng, led by Wen Hou, campaigned against Fantang, north of present-day Xincaixian 新蔡縣, Henan province 河南省, to acquire metals. Fantang was a distributing center of metals in the Ru River 汝水. valley, a branch of the Hui River 准水. Although Fantang does not appear in the inscriptions of the Western Zhou, several inscriptions in the reigns of King Li and Xu an document the frequent campaigns against the Huai Yi 准夷 which was close to Fantang. Especially, in the "Shi Huan gui" inscription, receiving King Xuan"s command, Shi Huan attacked the Huai Yi and acquired metals. It is likely that since the late Western Zhou the Zhou kings could not have controlled the Huai Yi region including the Fantang area, an important source of metals. But the Zhou kings still maintained the initiativ..
융생편종 . 진강정 . 번탕[양] . 서주 . 춘추시대 . 진국 . 문후 . 길금 . 회이 . 戒生編鐘 . 晉姜鼎 . 繁湯[陽] . 西周 . 春秋時代 . 晉國 . 文候 . 吉金 . 淮夷 . the Rongsheng bianzhong . the Jin Jiang ding . Fantang[yang] . Western Zhou . the Spring and Autumn Period . the State of Jin . Lord Wen . solid metals . the Huai Yi.
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