漢代 邊郡支配의 普遍的 原理와 그 성격 - 이념적 측면을 중심으로
Principle and Nature of Peripheral Control during the Han Dynasty - Focusing on Its Ideological Aspect-
Ch"in(秦) and Han(漢) empires ruled their realms by applying a centralizing system of commanderies(郡) and prefectures(縣), based on the household systems. Through active military campaigns and threats, these unified Chinese empires tried to expand their system of commanderies and prefectures over neighboring tribes, while subordinating submissive tribal lords as kings(王) or lords(候). But the control of the empires through the commanderies and prefectures system grounded on agricultural society could not be put through, when it went beyond agricultural society into nomadic society. As a consequence, the East Asian world order in Han times was divided into “civilized(華)” China and “barbarian(夷)” neighbors, with semi-civilized (thus pro-Chinese) tribal chiefs granted Chinese titles as outside subjects. The commanderies and prefectures system aimed at integrating neighboring peoples into the Chinese world order showed signs of weakness as early as at the time of Emperor Wu Di(武帝), who marshaled national resources and manpower to achieve an ambitious goal of “great integration(大一統)”, but had to announce an edict of Lun Tai(輸臺) focusing on agriculture rather than pacification of West Asia toward the end of his reign. Furthermore, the weakness was clearly shown in the abandonment of Four Han Commanderies in Korea and southern Manchuria as well as the subsequent occupation of Liao-dong(遼東) region by the Gong-sun family(公孫氏). To overcome such weakness, Han adopted a new system of control which recognized customs and practices of neighboring peoples under the names of “vassal state(屬國)” or “regional overseer(部都尉).” The result was the appearance of a seemingly integrated Chinese world order with emperor at apex incorporating chieftains of surrounding peoples. Needless to say, the establishment of an integrated Chinese world order was unilateral enterprise by the Chinese of Ch"in and Han empires. Still, it is also true that there existed some positive responses to it, especially among “eastern barbarian tribes(東夷族)” in Liao-dong region and Korean peninsula. Considering the fact that some tribe leaders accepted costumes of Han court despite their rejection of vassal position, and that Han(韓) tribal chiefs in Korea were zealous for obtaining Chinese seals and costumes, the Chinese enterprise to create an integrated world order promoted cultural dependency and political engagement among neighboring peoples. It seems quite plausible for neighboring peoples to join this integrated Chinese world order, when they were able to import advanced culture and at the same time get guarantee for local political stability. Conversely, if they were left with no benefits, then they might well have little interest in joining the Chinese world order. Therefore, it is quite inevitable that neighboring peoples disassociated themselves with the Chinese world order after the collapse of later Han empire, because advanced Chinese culture itself could not guarantee what they pursued in political way. Thus, it can be said that to the eyes of neighboring peoples, the value for maintaining the Chinese world order was lost. Moreover, Chinese imperial titles conferred on neighboring kings and lords, which hitherto had served continued relations with Han empire lost their value with the collapse of the empire and the subsequent chaotic international situation III East Asia until the reunification of China by Sui(隋) and T"ang(唐) in the sixth century. It is notable that disassociation or alienation from the Chinese world order on the part of neighboring peoples started at the very time when they completed import of culture and institution like law codes(律令) needed to build their centralized ancient state. Moreover, considering that such alienation was intense at the time of domestic division and disintegration in China, the Chinese world order had little practica..
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