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20세기 초반 中國 鄕村敎育共同體의 사상적 모색 - 儒敎理念의 持續과 變容
The Ideological Orientation of the Educational Village Community in the Early 20th Century of China - The Continuance and Transformation of the Confucian Ideology-

李在鈴  
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    In the20th century, China had started from the conflict between its traditional ideology and the Western cultures to be come into at that time. It means that the Confucian idea, a time-honored mental tradition of China, were faced with a serious challenge. A political disorder and a financial crisis built up a sense of crisis inside Chinese Community, especially, it was more prominent in a country village. In order to solve this state, since the latter half of the 1920"s, the movement for the rural enlightenment was developed. As it was very comprehensive improving activity for rural communities and it covered a public education and a farm relief, it was heavily affected by the Western ideology like the vocational education, public education, practical education, etc.. Thus, in this circumstance which the conventional value was in adversity, Liang Shu Ming drove the trial for constructing the educational village. This new trial aimed at accomplishing a social reform and a national revival, by way of showing creative ability, strengthening a group life, and awaking the village people. Because a regular schooling system couldn"t bear these roles, it was absolutely requested to reform their education systems so as to newly organize and innovatively lead a village community. In other words, a educational renovation was supposed to enrich its educational capacity, that is, by pointing to the educational village community. The newly typed trend of a educational village was developed with a rural school of the village construction institute placed in San Dong ZouPingXian as a central pivot. The rural school took a leading role in reforming a village community as well as was operated by its village people. It taught the public how to do moral culture and home management wisely and how to govern a country and reign over the world.. As taking the meaning of the Confucian ideology modernly, it also intended to transform and enlarge the Confucian instructions, that is, the individual morals and the household ethics into the new society. In the teaching methods, education for living was effective through integrating learning, teaching and working and moral education was acted on the basis of the proper oriental ethics. The above-mentioned educational experiments designed to suitably reform the educational systems for the village community to be central to morals and to correct a fallacy of educational circles to have intensely shown a tendency to copy the Occidental style. Therefore, the point of the rural education is simply not to return a feudalistic idea but to transform the Confucianism into a concept of a communal society, putting a graft into the pragmaticism. In order to teach the national spirit systematically, the rural school had prepared a course of moral culture. This course was composed of the three main parts; one was to teach the reasonable attitude toward life and the method of moral culture to raise the Sinocentrism based the Confucian ideology, another was to learn how to debate the practical issues of life by counselling the way to put the Chinese consciousness to practical use, and the other was to analyse their history and culture through the said above two methods. The Confucianism from of old was not merely turned into a sense of community but also recognized as the advance in an universal ideal and reason. Although the course of moral culture involved contents of a common curriculum, both were different in character. It built up the capacity of community, grafting a useful knowledge on the traditional Chinese ethic. Several texts stressed the teaching of Confucius as a real existence to have a symbolic meaning; HumanityㆍJusticeㆍLoyaltyㆍFilial PietyㆍReverence, Knowledge, Action, Learning and Teaching, and like that. As the Confucianism was originally based on morality, it denied any artificiality and fabrication. The teaching was defined as 'rationalism' in C..


  • 주제어

    유교이념 .   향촌교육공동체 .   양수면 .   향농학교 .   정신수양과정 .   儒敎理念 .   鄕村敎育共同體 .   梁漱溟 .   鄕農學校 .   精神陶鍊 .   Confucian ideology .   Educational village community .   Liang Shu Ming .   the rural school .   the course of moral culture.  

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