「周書」의 “戎殷”과 西周 金文의 戎
The “Rang Yin” in the Zhoushu and Rang in the Western Zhou Bronze Inscriptions
Rong appears to have been a place name or an enemy of Shang in the oracle bone inscriptions. However, due to its very limited usages, it is very difficult to reach any conclusion about the nature of Rong in the late Shang period. There are two references of “Rong Yin” 戎殷 in the “Shifu” 世俘 of the Yizhoushu 逸周書 and the “Kanggao” 康誥 of the Shangshu 尙書, both of which are authentic chapters documented in the early Western Zhou period. Unlike many other scholars who understand the “rong” 戎 as bing 兵 or do 大, I propose to read it as an adjective which has negative connotations. I further find another similar case, “Rong Hu” 戎후 in the “Dong gui” 동簋 inscription of the King Mu"s 穆 reign. Unlike the same Hu which had a close relationship with the Zhou court in the early part of the King Mu"s reign, the Hu became an enemy of Zhou and, then, was called as “Rong Hu” in the “Dong gui” inscription of the later part of King Mu"s reign. Following Edward Shaughnessy"s translation of the “rong” in the inscription as “belligerent,” I further propose the Rong in the Western Zhou was a generic term containing “warlike anti-Zhou powers.” The analysis of the eleven bronze inscriptions supports this supposition, proving that the locations of the Rong in the Western Zhou bronze inscriptions are not confined to the north or northwest. it is finally important to note that Xianyun 玁狁, the strongest enemy of Zhou in the northwest, is identified with Rong from the late Western Zhou inscriptions. Since the Xianyun eventually caused the collapse of the Western Zhou dynasty, the Zhou people may have been strongly impressed with the fearful impact of Xianyun. This might be the beginning of Rong as a proper noun for designating the enemies of northwest. Because of the limited usages of Rong in the bronze inscriptions and their conflict with those in the transmitted texts such as the Zhushu jinian 竹書紀年 and Zuozhuan 左傳 however, this must be just a speculation for further studies.
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