19世紀初 '樂善好施' 獎勵制度의 변화와 그 의미
Changing Pattern of Elite Contribution and Its Significance in the Early 19th Century China
The Yongzheng and Qianlong reigns (especially the first half of Qianlong) are often characterized as a period of "state-activism," which means that the state actively intervened in various social and economic matters of society by mobilizing its bureaucratic personnels and state funding. On the other hand, the rise of "elite activism" in the 19th century is commonly attributed to the outbreak of the Taiping rebellion and the subsequent restoration years in the Tongzhi period. In this line of thinking, the place of intervening years of Jiaqing and Daoguang remains obscure in the scheme of state-elite relationship. This paper aims to fill this gap in understanding the transition from the "state activism" in the 18th century to the "elite activism" in the 19th century by analyzing related data in three primary sources: the Veritable Records of the Qing Dynasty, the routine memorial of the Board of Personnel (like tiben 吏科題本), and the chronological summary of the routine memorial of the Board of Rites (like shishu 禮科史書). When local elites made monetary contributions for public purposes (leshan haoshi 樂善好施), the Qing government rewarded them with either public commendation (jingbiao 旌表) or evaluation (yixu 議敍). The records of these public commendation or evaluation are found in the above mentioned three sources. Therefore, it is possible for us to construct a long term pattern of the number of elite contribution the amount of which was significant enough to be reported to the central government. Based on the analysis of such a pattern, this paper argues that elite contribution became more frequent in the Jiaqing period than it was in the Qianlong reign, and that this trend was intensified even further in the subsequent Daoguang period. The declining fiscal condition of the Qing state in the early 19th century can be counted as the primary reason that necessitated a greater mobilization of elite resources for public causes. But there was also a growing official awareness that the public enterprises closely supervised by officials were eventually not as efficient as those primarily managed by civilians. It is true that the contribution cases were more numerous in richer provinces in the Lower Yangzi region, but other regions also witnessed the increase of such cases to varying degrees. As the number of contribution cases increased dramatically, the state was faced with an urgent need to devise a more systematic set of reward regulations. The regulations made in the 7th year of Daoguang served this purpose. These regulations purported not only to facilitate reward process, but also to promote contributions by providing more favorable reward to both commoners and gentry members. The regulations also provided special reward for the managers (dongshi 董事) in public enterprises. It is significant that the state officially recognized and encouraged the roles of gentry managers in public works. We often see the terms "gentry managers" or "managers" in various sources in the 19th century, and this frequent appearance of the terms seems to be linked to the expansion of public works led by gentry managers and also to the state recognition and promotion of manager system in public works. Jiaqing and Daoguang emperors both actively encouraged elite contribution, and simultaneously encouraged elite-led public works by prohibiting unnecessary intervention by local officials. It is no coincidence that we see the expansion of public institutions funded and managed by people, not by officials, in the 19th century local sources. It has been mentioned that the number of public works funded and managed by local elite was on the rise from the Jiaqing period. This brings into question the conventional wisdom that traces the rise of elite activism to the mid-19th century Taiping rebellion. Though the rebellion certainly served ..
가경 . 도광 . 낙선호시 . 연수 . 정표 . 의서 . 동사 . 嘉庆 . 道光 . 乐善好施 . 捐输 . 旌表 . 议叙 . 董事 . Giaqing . Daoguang . “Enjoying Good Works and Fond of Giving” . elite donation . public commendation . evaluation . gentry manager.
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