宋元代 紡織業과 女性의 地位
Textile Production and Women"s Place in Song-Yuan Times
With their works in textile production, women in Song period contributed to the domestic and the national economy on equal and complementary terms with men doing the tilling, after the domestic workload was categorized into the stereotype of "men till, women weave." Spinning and weaving bestowed upon women their socio-economic place as independent managers and skilled technicians, and the textile work was even recognized as a cultural heritage symbolizing femininity and the feminine virtues. During Song when the commercial activities was prospering, with the demand for fabric increasing as a means of public imposts, women"s social status grew more important as their textile products were valued in monetary terms. With the increasing specialization and division among job trades throughout the whole industrial sector, a trend became apparent where the territory and the importance of women"s domestic textile works became lesser and the traditional gender division of domestic labor unclear than before. The institution of Yuan"s taxation system demanding yarns instead of cloth and the introduction of cotton fabrics gave impetus to the further development of this trend. Throughout the urban factories producing silk or cotton fabrics and farm families producing the raw material, spinning and weaving was becoming no more considered as "women"s own work" or "womanly work." Women lost their traditional place as the independent producers of fabrics and tax payers, and the value and the achievement of woman"s labor were getting lost or hidden behind the co-operative system represented by the man of the house. Women were constantly burdened with exhaustive house chores and economic activities, yet their works were deemed of lesser importance than those of men or were made less obvious. It is reasonable to consider that these changes had something to do with the changes of women"s legal and social status after Song. One could deduce that the ever increasing male dominance and the patrilineality based on Confucianism could arouse enough consensus from the general populace.
송원대 . 여성 . 남경여직 . 성별분업 . 방직업 . 견직업 . 면직업 . 宋元代 . 女性 . 男耕女织 . 性別分业 . 纺织业 . 绢织业 . 绵织业 . Song-Yuan times . women . "men farming, women weaving" . gender division of work . spinning and weaving . silk textile production . cotton textile production.
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