전통시대 베트남 여성의 교역활동 - 촌락에서 대양으로
Commercial Activities of Women in the History of Vietnam: From the Village to the Ocean
This study discusses Vietnamese women"s economic roles and their activities in the past. First, I discusses the enlargement of the women"s activities with the changes of history in Vietnam. Until the 15th century, women"s activities had been restricted in the village level. But from the aggressive policy of Le Thanh Tong to open numbers of markets in order to develop domestic economy, Vietnamese female traders began to show themselves in urban areas such as spaces among villages and even in the central markets in the capital. The 36 Guild Market was a representative space for women and it gradually became the world of women. With the beginning of the "Age of Commerce" which mainly started from the 16th century, Westerners frequently visited Vietnamese port cities and they met lots of women as their trade partners. In other words, Vietnamese women"s activities in the field of commerce began to be connected with the Western world. When the Vietnamese had finished their well known "southward movement or nom lien" until the 18th century, the Vietnamese women even began to sail to Island Southeast Asian regions across the ocean. The second point that this article stresses is about the social status of the Vietnamese women. In many cases, the active roles of Vietnamese women In commerce are regarded as to be the important factors for enhancing the social status of women. However, this study claims that the enlarging activities of women and the social status have been nothing to do with each other. In contrast, the status of women has been declining while their roles in commercial field have been more and more active. Confucianisatoin was the rnarn reason for this consequence. Despite women"s increasing roles in commerce, men with the tool of Confucianism, strictly limited women"s social and political status. I like to say the market or the space of commerce was an asylum for women who were suffering the decreasing social status of themselves in the general society. The asylum, under the "permission" or "deliberate consideration" of men needless to say, was a safe inhaling space for women, and made the sexual crash be avoided as a consequence. In other words, however, this space was women"s own arena. In this arena, Vietnamese women have been enlarging the boundary of their activities, and have been developing their own talents and dreams.
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