唐代 皇室女性의 生活과 地位
The Lives and Status of Palace Women in Tang China
In Tang China, women who lived in palaces fell into three general categories, imperial women such as the empress, consorts in the harem, and personal attendants and their daughters. This study is limited to only two of these general categories; harem women and personal attendants. Excluding the empress, who was above the ranking system, all women in Tang Palaces fell somewhere within nine ranks. Imperial concubines occupied the rank"s upper tier, and were classified as Nei Guan(內官). Below them, the Court Ladies who worked within six bureaus(六尙), controlling the day-to-day affairs of the imperial house, and serving the Empress and Nei Guan in both ceremonial and daily life. The Tang Liu Dian describes the Imperial Harem System that resulted from Tang"s improvement and formalization of the Zhou, and shows us 121 consorts within the nine ranks. Taking advantage of the situation, the empress Wu assumed power behind the throne by 660 and reformed the Nei Guan system. Changes in the imperial concubines" names are worthy of notice. Rather than reflecting on aesthetic qualities of the women"s value, such as beauty, obedience, or goodness, they represented real jobs the women held, such as performing the tasks of the harem, or acting as superior officials in six bureaus and what might be called a women"s bureaucracy. In an effort to project an image of frugality, the Emperor Xuanzong reduced the scale of palace women by eliminating some of its ranks. The reduction in ranks, however, did not correspond to a decrease in actual consorts. According to poems from the period, the middle of the eighth century saw the number of women in seraglio soar to 40,000 ; a scale unmatched in Chinese history. Although the lives of the Empress and concubines seemed glamorous and their responsibilities important, the only assured life of ease and luxury was that granted by the Emperor on those he favored. Woman like Yang Guifei, favored by the Emperor Xuanzong, enjoyed a magnificent existence and rose to the highest rank among his consorts. She was ensconced in one of his palaces, where she enjoyed the fruits of his attention, such as 700 embroiderers working exclusively on her wardrobe, a multitude of artisans creating her elaborate accessories, and the Emperor"s frequent company on trips to hot springs. Not even Taizong"s renowned Imperial Harem enjoyed such opulence as the entourage that accompanied them on such journeys. Women in the seraglio who did not attract an emperor"s attention lived tedious, solitary lives devoid of contact with their friends and family outside the palace, and very often without any contact with even the emperor, a nominal consort. These women often found solace only through poetry. Frequently the emperor, upon assuming the throne, would take pity on such women, and allow them to return to their homes. Without hope of such pity, the women could only dream of becoming an emperor"s real consort, or even the empress. Such positions close to the emperor offered not only to alleviate their loneliness, but perhaps also the possibility to play an active role in the emperor"s court. Tang consorts lived lives filled by the rites and ceremonies presided over by the Empress. Many of these ceremonies were similar to those performed by the Emperor, but slightly different, though related ends; a division of responsibility between sovereign man and woman. The Court Conference, and Mulberry Culture ceremonies are worthy of note among these responsibilities. The Mulberry Culture ceremony can be compared with the Emperor"s plowing in person ceremony both were performed at nearly the same time of year and held similar symbolic meanings. The Emperor"s Court Conference Ceremony served to establish order between the sovereign and his subjects, while the Empress"s Court Conference served to es..
황실여성 . 후궁(제) . 황후 . 비빈 . 궁인 . 궁정 . 지위 . 황후조회의례 . 황후친잠의례 . 皇室女性 . 后宮(制) . 皇后 . 妃嫔 . 宮人 . 宮庭 . 地位 . 皇后朝命妇 . 皇后亲蚕仪礼 . place women . imperial harem(system) . empress . imperial concubines . court ladies . imperial court . status . Empress"s Court Conference Ceremony . Empress"s Mulberry Culture Ceremony.
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