『맹인의 나라』와 『눈먼자들의 도시』의 원형 - 인간의 정체성 추구
Archetypal Myth in The Country of the Blind and The Blindness : A Search for the Personal Identity of Mankind
This paper is to examine the archetypal myth in the English writer and critic H. G. Wells" The Country of the Blind (1911) and Portuguese Jose Saramago"s The Blindness (1995), the 1998 Nobel Prize for Literature. Using the approach of a parallel literary study in comparative literature, it is possible to fundamentally observe a representation of human life and the universality of humanity. In recent years, the field of comparative literature has broadened its scope beyond tracing direct influences to focus on comparisons of cultural significance and on analyses of analogues and contrasts. Bulfinch, a scholar of mythology, has already mentioned that mythology is the handmaid of literature in The Age of Fable, and its relationship between mythology and literary work is closely connected, and therefore, some critics define archetype as a universal symbol. According to Northrope Frye, who wrote Anatomy of Criticism as a synthesis book for archetypal criticism, he emphasized to apply scientific methods to study literary works. Although a lot of scholars attacked him for this endeavor, by the 1990s, his archetypal criticism began to receive more acceptance. Wells" The Country of the Blind is a warning work against the contemporary culture in crisis, and in the story a climber Nunez fell into the valley of the blind and experienced a lot of bizarre things which men who were unable to see requested to do as their customs, but because he had eyes to see, he couldn"t accomplish thing as the other men could do. Some critics say Wells" works like this have an archetypal myth, such as the falling into the valley of the blind. Saramargo"s The Blindness also consisted of the same archetypal myth as Wells using a quest motif in searching for the personal identity of mankind. And so, we can determine in The Country of the Blind and The Blindness, the archetypal myth of Tiresias in Greek mythology, who is blind but has prophetic power. As Frye indicated the imagination of myth, we can be seen as we emphasize it to live out the power of liberal arts through the search for the personal identity of mankind as it relates to mythology.
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