질병과 문학: 문학속의 역병의 4가지 공간
Disease and Literature: The Four Spatialisations of Plagues in Literature
Regarding diseases or epidemics in narratives as constructed cultural by-products, this paper classified narratives of diseases into four categories of myth, realism, micro-history, and ecology. The first three types of texts roughly coincide with Michel Foucault's three constructed spatialisations of the signified(disease) and the signifier(symptom) in Naissance de la Clinique. According to Foucault, the nineteenth-century bourgeois society victimized patients to validate its controlling role by stigmatizing disease and patients. But this mythical and unscientific space is soon replaced by the second space in which surgical anatomy played a significant role in lightening the specific cause of death from disease. Despite the intense caring of each individual patent, however, this second space was still full of preconceptions, hypotheses, and stigmatizations by the lack of coup d'oeil on the interaction between disease and society. The contaminated social and political body by ideologies of malady narratives was more fully illuminated in the Foucault's third space. After investigating these Foucault's three spaces of disease discourses, this paper set up the new fourth space called ecological spatialisation where modern technology becomes the direct and serious threat to environment and human beings with time. In order to reach a contextual understand of interaction between new diseases and mutational environments, we need more ecological texts of disease which includes technology, globalization, and affluenza.
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