일제시대의 한국 학교 검도의 특성에 관한 고찰
A Study of Characteristics of Sword Art Training, or Kumdo, in Korean Schools during Japanese Colonial Period
본 연구는 일제식민치하시기의 학교검도의 특성을 통해 당시 학교검도교육이 차지하는 역할은 무엇이었는지를 밝히고자 하였다. 이에 본 연구는 첫째, 일제식민치하 시대적 특성은 무엇인가?, 둘째, 일제식민치하 교육의 특성은 무엇인가? 셋째, 일제식민치하 각종 학교에서 실시한 검도교육의 특성은 무엇인가?를 중심으로 살펴 본 결론은 다음과 같다. 첫째, 일제식민치하는 한일합방이후 무단통치기, 문화통치기, 황국신민통치기로 구분돼 전체주의(全體主義) 국가 이념과 군국주의 체제하에서 총력전 체계화 교육을 강력히 추진한 것임을 알 수 있었다. 둘째, 일제식민치하의 교육은 조선교육령을 기반으로 일제가 조선인의 문화적ㆍ정신적 독립성을 무시하고 일제의 일방적인 교육방침을 제시한 것으로 1910년 한일합방이후 학교체조교수요목을 제정하여 군사적, 정치적 압력으로 이용하였다. 셋째, 육군연성학교는 체육검술과라는 명칭으로 6개월 과정이 설치되어 있었으며, 무관학교는 격검 수련이 있었다. 하지만 일제식민치하에 접어들면서 보통학교의 경우는 1937. 7. 7일 중일전쟁이후 황국신민체조를 강조하면서 1940년대 접어들어 검도와 총검술을 지도했으며, 사립학교는 1916년 오성학교에 검도장이 있었고, 연희전문학교, 보성전문학교, 이화여전에서도 검도부가 있었음을 확인할 수 있었다. 또한 사범학교에서는 체조과목에 검도를 수련하는데 1학년부터 5학년까지 매주 3시간으로 편성되어 있었고, 군사학교의 경우에는 매주 3, 4일은 검술을 집중적으로 실시했으며, 검술 혹은 검도라는 명칭으로 훈육부에서 1시간 30분가량을 수련하게 되어 있음을 알 수 있었다. 그리고 만주 전국대학에서는 매일 오후에 검도수련이 필수였으며, 검도이외에도 일본무도를 수련케 해 일본문화교육의 효과를 얻으려는 일본의 전략적 프로그램이었음을 알 수 있었다.
This study was to establish the identity of the role of swordsmanship training that had been performed in Korean school educations under Japanese colonial reign through means of investigating characteristics of Kumdo or Sword Art Training of those days. With the focus on such topics as: First, what did the characteristics of the age under Japanese colonial reign look like? Second, what did the distinctive features of education under Japanese colonial reign look like? Third, what was the gist of the characteristics of swordsmanship training performed in many Korean schools during Japanese colonial period? First, Japanese colonial policy can be divided into three stages, that is, a period after Japan"s annexation of Korea during which Korea had been reigned under militarism, a period of reign under cultural orientation of people, and a period of complete colonial reign by annexing Korean people as citizens of Japanese imperial state, so then swordsmanship was strongly emphasized and expedited in school educations as a state ideology of totalitarianism and colonial policy based on militarism. Second, the educations in Korea under Japanese colonial reign were carried out by means of unilateral presentation of Japanese government based on their colonial ordinance related to education in Joseon having neglected Korean people"s cultural and spiritual independency, and since after Japan"s annexation of Korea in 1910, Japanese government provided a guideline for physical instruction and exercise in Korean schools, and then they used it as of the means of military and political pressure. Third, at an army school, called Yeonseong, a 6-month training course for swordsmanship was established with a name; the department of physical fitness, Sword Art, and also there were training classes of swordsmanship in the military school. Moreover, during the period of Japanese colonial reign, primary schools were encouraged to practice gymnastics or physical exercises under a doctrine of new citizens of imperial state since after outbreak of China-Japan war on July 7, 1937, and entering into 1940s, students were taught and trained the sword art as well as bayonet exercise. As for private schools, there was a gym exclusively for sword art training at Oseong School in 1916, and I could have confirmed that schools such as Yeonhui College, Boseong College and Ewha Woman"s College had a department of Sword Art. And, to exercise swordsmanship or Kumdo as part of gymnastic curriculum at the teacher"s schools, a curriculum was established through whole academic years, from first grade to fifth grade, 3 hours per each week and in case of military school; cadets were required to exercise swordsmanship at least 3 to 4 hours a week, and I also found that the military officer trainees were urged to practice skills in the sword for about one and half hours per round at the disciplinary department under a curriculum name, Skill in the use of Sword, or Sword Art. At Keonkuk College in Manchuria, swordsmanship training was a prerequisite subject for students, and they must have gotten through training in sword in the whole afternoon every school day. Thus I could see that Kumdo training was a strategic curriculum of Japanese colonial regime.
Japanese colonial reign . Training in the sword . Swordsmanship or Sword Art . Swordsmanship training in school . Physical exercise or gymnastics as for new citizens of imperial state . 일제식민치하 . 격검 . 검도 . 학교검도 . 황국식민체조.
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