시의 혁명과 시적 혁명 : 심미적 아방가르드와 '온몸의 시'로서의 아방가르드
Revolution in Poetry and Poetic Revolution: Aesthetic Avant-garde and Full-bodied Avant-garde
Avant-garde art brought the energy of a full transformation to Korean poetry, which was bogged down in traditional lyrical conventions. The impulse provided by the avant-garde, violating the standard artistic norms, produced many experimental texts in a quest for constant renewal. Studies of the avant-garde in Korean poetry have so far mainly been conducted in terms of Modernism. Taking the tendency toward Dadaism found in the early poems of Im Hwa or Jeong Ji-Yong in the 1920s, the influence of Futurism and Cubism in the concrete or visual and numerical poems by Yi Sang in the 1930s, surrealist texts expressing in prose the flow of the unconscious by free association and the absence of spacing between words, or the surrealist poetry of Jo Hyang in the 1950s, etc. the specific avant-garde artistic quality is defined. However, although the texts and poetic theories of the poet Kim Su-Yeong in the 1960s are clearly avant-garde, they present slight differences from the previous forms of avant-garde poetry. In his "full-bodied poetics" or his "anti-poetics," Kim Su-Yeong rejected the forms of literature that were Modernist only in technique, advocating at the same time a text into which physicality had been integrated and a revolution of society. Kim Su-Yeong"s antipoetics is very similar to the poetics of negation of Julia Kristeva. She linked the conflict between the symbolic and the semiotic and the physical to the production of text as she explicated the nature of avant-garde poetry. She stipulated that avant-garde texts do not simply violate the standards of previous aesthetics, they rather express a challenge to the symbolic structures governing society as a whole, as a revolutionary dream. Invoking the theoretical positions of Julia Kristeva, it is proposed to express this distinction by terming the avant-garde poetry that simply violates aesthetic norms "a revolution in poetry" and the poetry that calls for a radical transformation of society as a whole, as Kim Su-Yeong"s "full-bodied poetry" does, "a poetic revolution." In his "Full-bodied Poetics," Kim Su-Yeong wrote "Poetry is not written with the head, nor with the heart, but with the whole body." He went on the say, "Modernity in poetry should not be pursued by poetic techniques but with the whole body." That is to say that the advanced poetry dreamed of by Kim Su-Yeong demands the integration into the text of the physicality that had been eliminated by the symbolic. That (the physicality of the pre-oedipal conflict) endows the text with a vigorous conflictual rhythm or libidinal energy and, although paradox and irony produce a confusion of meaning, at the same time they also introduce the dream of a revolution attacking and rejecting previous systems. A subject that disturbs and threatens a subject that has been secure in the order of previous systems, producing a divided subject, gives rise to dreams of a new world, one that does not as yet exist. Therefore Kim Su-Yeong came to assert that: "all advanced poetry is subversive poetry." It is also possible to affirm that this is very close to a practice of what Kristeva called "poetic revolution." Seen in this way, it becomes possible to include the ballads of Kim Ji-Ha, such as Ojeok (Five Thieves), or the calls for anti-capitalistic detachment or bohemian freedom of a Kim Jong-Sam or Cheon Sang-Byeong, and the feminist confessional poems of the 1980s, among earlier examples of avant-garde poetry.
아방가르드 . 모더니즘 . 심미적 아방가르드 . 정치적 아방가르드 . 반시 . 온몸의 시론 . 시의 혁명과 시적 혁명 . 테틱 . 아방가르드와 키치 . 아방가르드와 뉴 미디어 . Avant-garde . Modernism . Modernity . Revolution of Poetry . Poetic Revolution . Asthetic Avant-garde . Full bodied Avant-garde.
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