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한국 자연시에 나타난 은유 연구 - 박목월ㆍ박용래 시를 중심으로
The Metaphors in Korean Nature Poems (Analyzing poems of Park, Mok-wol and Park, Yong-rae)

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    Nature in Korean poetry from traditional poems to Modern ones is the most important subject for poets to speculate on. In traditional poems, Nature is the place where to live in seclusion and to train oneself mentally and morally, and also is shown as realization of its "naturalness" standing above life and death. In Modern period, it represents the image of home, and as a cure for the violence of industrialization and urbanization, it reveals itself as various theses that are romantic, erotic, and even of anti-civilization. Notably, the poets from Chungnokpa (Chungnok school) to recent ecological poetry explore the questions about human existence, such as the limitation of human being, the feeling of emptiness, life and death, which are all compared with the eternity of Nature or Universe in poems. To these poets, Nature is a multi-faceted being, on one hand, to conform to the circulation of time, and on the other, to regenerate itself constantly. This kind of circular view of Nature is deeply related to the traditional, eastern way of thinking, and even to the poetic tradition that regards Nature as a sort of framework to investigate inner states of mind upon, as well as an ideal, spiritual space. Attaining the stage of poetic prominence, based on the traditional eastern viewpoint of Nature, Park, Mok-wol and Park, Yong-rae are poets from whose poems we can define some features of the Korean way of poetic awareness of Nature. To Park, Mok-wol, Nature is an object of speculation and the source of understanding. He contemplates Nature from a distance, which leads him to turn his thought inward and to long for "over-there" as a lonely observer. "Over-there" orientation is an attitude to show respect for Nature, although the poet does not converge with Nature nor intend to be identified with it, differently from the traditional Nature poets. Confronting "over-there" Nature in solitude, poetic-self dwells on the law of Nature, accepting it as an essence of life and transforming himself into a part of Nature. It is the role of metaphor that at this moment is played to connect the discontinuity of the natural world and the human world, to mediate heterogeneous semantic categories, mapping them newly constructed semantic domains. In other words, Mokwol"s "following the law of Nature" lies in metamorphosing oneself freely, and it is the metaphor of transforming which enables poetic-self to step into a novel semantic world. Among other things, "water" is the main image to transform itself and to make a journey following the law of Nature. Meanwhile, Park, Yong-rae composes poems about positive and joyful sentiments living in Nature, and intends to absorb himself into Nature, achieving the total identification with it. He uses some idiosyncratic words to picture a humble and simple life where people and Nature are in harmony. The comfort and composure which are brought by the harmony shows his positive way of life. It is also his positive attitude toward human life and Nature that brings the individuals to experience the process of decay or dissolution, to overcome their loneliness, and finally to advance into the unification with Nature. In his poems, there appear a lot of lonely and desolate places, which are later transformed into the beautiful and fantastic ones by his typical ritual of dissolution and by its basis, the metaphor of dreaming. And light and flowers are the central imagery motivating the metaphor. In sum, the attitudes of the two poets toward Nature are contrasting: "confrontation in solitude" of Mo-kwol and "positive dissolution" of Yong-rae. However, both of them are incessantly interested in Nature, ultimately aiming at making a compromise between the human solitary existence and the ideal nature. In this respect, their efforts can be regarded to be profoundly linked with the tr..


  • 주제어

    지시틀 .   비유적 사건 .   건너의식 .   순리(順理) .   흥취(興趣) .   기상어 .   지락(至樂) .   용해 .   indication framework .   figurative events .   "over-there"orientation .   law of Nature .   joyfulness .   idiosyncratic words .   bliss .   dissolution.  

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