탈중심(脫中心)의 전후 세계와 물질적 기표의 우위성 - 구상의 「초토의 시」 읽기
Decentered World and the Precedence of the Signifier: Re-reading 'The Wasteland poems' by Ku Sang
This paper attempts to analyze 'The Wasteland Poems' of Ku Sang by the poststructualist literary theory. Poststructualist poetics is a branch of critical inquiry that describes the ways in which theories about literature get entangled in the phenomenon they attempt to describe. It finds that the structures of the poems do not exist independently of their subjects, as objects of knowledge, but are structures, themselves, entangled within the forces that produce them. Together with Jacque Lacan`s psychoanalysis and post-Saussurian linguistic theory, poststructualist poetics attempts to find the impossibility of the notion of the language of communication and representation, stable Cartesian poetic ego between subject in the enunciated and subject of enunciation, and also finds the ruptures between signifier and signified in the text. 'The Wasteland Poems' is a series-poem which consists of 10 poems under the same title, but 10 poems are not arranged in regular order continuously, are rather arranged intermittenly. I regard this poetic form of special arrangement shows the characteristic device of modernist poet who does not believe in the historical, progressive time in succession. 'The Wasteland Poems' show the various devastated nature of mother land, or of ruined women, or of the changing humanities after the Korean war. The Korean war had disrupted traditional apprehensions of the possibilities of transcendental significance in experiences-significance, most specifically, in relation to human subjectivity and to metaphysical values. Those rapid changes are the unprecedented transformation of the fecund confrontation of intelligence with the facticity of death, a facticity wholly resistant to reason, to human values, to revelatory representation. The traditional confrontation has been transformed from the human values and subjectivity of Confucian system into the absence of such seriousness, into an epistemology and ethics of spurious materialism and capitalism. Aesthetic forms are rapidly changed by the collapse of those hierarchized, definitional value-gradients. Transcendental meanings and hierarchies were be irrevocably lost and replaced by a pervading sense of ephemerality and self-dissolution in the age of decentered, material capitalistism. All of this contributed to the overwhelming sense that the center was gone and transcendental, humanistic subject was ruined. “The Wasteland Poems” shows those rapid changes of human values, decentered human subjectivity, the precedence of the signifier which is a material aspects of language as a distinctive features of material capitalism, and the collapse of the Confucian thought and logocentrism by using a form of mixed genres, carnivalesque confusions of different discourses and various deconstructive devices as paradox, oxymoron, irony, play of signifier, materiality of language.
탈중심화된 세계 . 주체 분열 . 초월적 가치 . 자본주의 . 기표의 물질성 . 혼합 장르 . 기원 해체 . 담론들의 충돌 . 환유 . 제유 . 형이상학적 위계질서 . 카니발 . 시각시 . 물화 . Decentered World . Split in the Subject . Transcendental Values . Capitalism . Materiality of Signifiant . Mixed Genres . Decentering the Origin . Conflict of the Discourses . Metonymy . Synecdochy . Metaphysical Hierarchy . Carnival . Visual Poem . Reification.
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