金屬工藝의 鏤金細工技法 硏究 - 고신라 고분출토품을 중심으로
The Filigree Technique in Silla Metal Craft
The paper attempts to explore the origin of the filigree technique used in metal craft works of Silla dynasty. The filigree technique was first used in Mesopotamia around 2600 BC. It was transmitted to Syria and Palestine in the eastern seashore of the Mediterranean around 2000 BC, and to Egypt around 1800 BC. Afterwards, it reached the western part of the Mediterranean and highly developed in Greece and Etruria. The European filigree technique influenced Scythian gold-works through the colonizing Greeks. The filigree technique was extended in the East as far as the eastern part of Siberia. and appeared in China during the Han dynasty. During the Three Kingdoms period in Korea, the filigree technique developed at a highly refined level. particularly in Silla. This technique was used in Silla mostly for surface decoration of ear ornaments. It gradually developed from "filigree" (the golden strands decoration) to "granulation" (golden grains decoration). In the golden strands technique. beaded wire was more commonly used than plain wire. The beaded wire had gradually changed into a globular form that resembles golden grains. This seems to be intended to achieve the effect of the golden grains technique. The golden grains technique developed from the stage of decorating golden grains outlined with golden strands to the stage of decorating golden grains without golden strands. The most representative example is the surface decoration of ear ornaments such as golden small-ball earrings from Tomb no. 14 of Kyerim Road and golden large-ball earrings from Pubuch"ong (Tomb of Husband and Wife). Especially. golden strands 0.7-0.8㎜ thick and golden grains 0.67㎜ thick of golden large-ball earrings from Pubuch"ong show the highly developed technique. The development of the filigree technique in Silla is traced in a sequence from Hwangnam-daech"ong (Great tomb of Hwangnam) to Kumny ngch"ong (Tomb of golden bell): then to Tomb no.14 of Kyerim Road and Pubuch"ong. This chronicle of the filigree technique shows the same locus of the tombs of Silla. The filigree technique gradually declined as the funerary custom became simple and frugal under the influence of Buddhism. It lost its importance in metal craft due to the simplification of the burial structure and the reduction of burial goods. The filigree technique was introduced in Silla as part of the nomadic culture of the Altai and Ordos regions. This supposition is supported by the examination of the origin of the wood-lined chamber tombs with stone mounds and ear ornaments closely related to Silla filigree technique. The structural resemblance with Scythian Kurgans indicates that the wood-lined chamber tombs with stone mounds originated in Siberia and that ear ornaments were also based on those of nomadic tribes. The filigree technique that originated in ancient Orient seems to have transmitted to Altai in the Central Asia. It was then transmitted to Silla passing through the Korean peninsula via the Ordos region southwest of Mongolia. It is also suggested that the route toward Silla via Koguryo territory after the movement towards the east from the foot of Altai mountains. In conclusion, the filigree technique is an example of Central Asian influence in the art of Silla. The affinity between Silla and Central Asian arts is proved by golden crowns and glassware excavated as well as the filigree technique. The filigree technique of Silla is important not only as a technique in gold-work but also provides a clue for understanding characteristics of Silla art.
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