高麗 後期 靑瓷의 器形 變遷
Changes in the Shape of Celadon Ware during the Late Koryŏ Dynasty
During the late Koryŏ dynasty one finds a number of external factors that could have made impact on the development of art. such as resistance against Mongols. the interference of Yuan. the rebellion of Honggŏnjŏk 紅巾賊 and frequent invasions of Japanese pirates and severe exploitations by military ruling class and influential families. Consequently politics continued to be crippled. and social disorder was aggravated. This period marked the decline of Korvŏ dynasty and was finally led to its fall. In this period the collapse of so 所 system was accelerated. celadon produced by professional specialization resulted in lowering its quality. Accordingly. as production and supply of celadon were extended due to relaxation of governmental control and increase of demanders. its quality was lowered and then changed into punch"ŏng 粉靑 ware. On the one hand. the South coast region was the place where established the economic foundation of military government during the resistance against Mongolia and the quality of celadon produced centering around Kangjin region showed a gradual decline not. a sudden fall. That is. the resistance against Mongolia was a cause of decline of celadon. but. it didn"t. cause its qualitative deterioration and after that. it was gradually declined with interference of Yuan Dynasty, frequent. invasions of Japanese pirate raiders and stagnation of Koryŏ society Especially. a lot. of damages of the South coast. region by Japanese pirate raiders became a decisive factor of deteriorating the quality of celadon at Kangjin region. The celadon of the 13th century developed the schematization partially in its shape and pattern compared to that of the 12th century in its gold age. but it had the neat and real naturalness. Fire-clay support centering around silica support was partially used and it has the aftertaste of jade green in its golden age. Also it shows a great proportion of pure celadon like that of the 12th century. It was also confirmed in the excavated articles of King Myŏngjong"s tomb. Choi Hang"s 崔沆 tomb. Yongjang 龍藏 Castle on Chindo 珍島. Pŏphwasa 法華寺 on Wando 莞島 and Pŏphwasa 法華寺 on Chejudo 濟州道. Therefore, the celadon of the 13th century has the aftertaste of jade green celadon in its golden age, but it was declined gradually due to social conditions such as the resistance against Mongolia. In the 14th century. as such a tradition emphasized a practicality and functionality. shape of celadon became thick. large and dull. Its lips was mostly curved toward inside and its feet was wider than those of the 13th century. Its patterns were simplified or group patterns were repeated. schematized and stylized. In glazing, it was changed into dark color gradually having yellow and brown colors and its ground clay became harsh as times went by. And as the celadons excavated under the sea at Torip"o 道里浦, Muan 務安 showed, the proportion of pure celadon was decreased and it is considered that it was a natural result due to the degeneration of glaze. Also in the 14th century. as a cup with long leg (高足杯 kojokpae), an angled bottle (扁甁) and a bowel with curved treated bottom of new styles appeared, it was transferred to punch"ŏng. As bowls had been large sized, large and small bowels losing its functions were disappeared. and masangbae was converted into more practical kojokpae and then disappeared. On the one hand. in the 14th century, celadons with incriptions including cylcial years appeared as the means for inhibiting the qualitative decline of cleadon, It is found that the period of making dated celadon was the 14th century by the state of things of Kangiin region and through the comparison of it to the excavated articles of the 13th century. In addition, periods of manufacturing dated celadons are divided in
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