17-18세기 동아시아에서 實景山水畵의 성행과 그 의미
The Prevalence and Meaning of the Real Scenery Landscape - Painting in the 17th and 18th Centuries in China, Korea, and Japan
Real scenery landscape paintings spread widely during the seventeenth to eighteenth centuries in China, Korea and Japan. In contrast to the traditional way of depicting landscape i.e, the conceptual and idealistic images of the Chinese Che School (浙派) and Wu school (吳派) styles, artists during this period began to depict the beauty of real scenery and topographies in their own countries. This new trend started in China in the early seventeenth century and spread first to Korea and then to Japan. This study investigates why such a phenomenon occurred in all three countries simultaneously. Previous discourse has debated whether it is related to an internal motive such as the independent movement in Korea and Japan. or to an external source such as an international trend to pay attention to the real world and actual life, In this paper, I propose a number of common factors which eventually formulated the prevalence of the real scenery landscape painting in these three countries. Firstly, I propose that the School of Practical Learning (實學), a philosophical movement which prevailed in the seventeenth to eighteenth centuries in these three countries, played an important role in establishing real scenery landscape painting and genre painting. Instead of looking at the world from the conceptual and philosophical Nee-Confucian viewpoint, scholars of the School of Practical Learning were concerned with actual life and the reality of the world. This kind of pragmatic thinking in Asia was stimulated by the visiting Westerners such as the Jesuit missionaries, and by Western publications translated into Chinese at that time. The popularity of travelling and composing travel essays in the Ming period China, the late Chosen period in Korea, and the Edo period in Japan equally contributed to the development of the real scenery landscape paintings. Historically, literature served as a forerunner to the formulation of new movement in art. Therefore, it is unmistakable that the popularity of travel along with the travel diaries and anthologies had an impact on the development of the real scenery landscape painting. Futhermore, I believe that the introduction of woodblock prints from China to Korea and Japan was another source by which Korean and Japanese artists learned of Chinese landscape paintings. Based on these factors, the real scenery landscape painting flourished broadly in all of East Asia. Although a large amount of the real scenery landscape painting was produced in these three countries, each country developed its own unique characteristics. For example, in China the Huangshan School (Anhui School) produced mainly landscapes based on nature. These artists especially favored the depiction of the scenic views of the Huangshan mountain in the Anhui province of China. In describing the various peaks in the mountain, Anhui artists like Hung-jen (弘仁), for example, initiated an abstract and geometric style. In Korea, Chŏng Sŏn formed a new school of real scenery landscape painting called “true-view landscape painting." Based on the traditional Korean way of describing actual scenery and the literati painting style from China, he created a unique method of depiction. Of the many mountains in Korea he especially liked the Diamond Mountains with their needle-shaped peaks and expressive pine trees. He enlivened the beauty of Korean scenery with his powerful renderings of the axe-cut and hemp-fiber strokes. Many artists followed his brush manner and perspective together with the shapes of peaks and pine trees in depicting scenes from the Diamond Mountains and other sites. In Japan, the famous Nanga (南畵) artist Ike no Taiga was a pioneer in the field of true-view landscape painting. He was a versatile painter who also painted in the manner of ancient masters (倣作) and the subject of Four Gentlemen. Taiga described the topographies of Japan in
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