Wrinkled Surface-Mediated Antibacterial Activity of Graphene Oxide Nanosheets
Surface wrinkles are commonly observed in large-scale of graphene films. As a new feature, the wrinkled surface of graphene films may directly affect bacterial viability by means of various interactions of bacterial cells with graphene sheets. In the present study, we introduce a wrinkled surface geometry of graphene oxide (GO) thin films for antibacterial application. Highly wrinkled GO films were formed by vacuum filtration of a GO suspension through a prestrained filter. Several types of wrinkled GO surfaces were obtained with different roughness grades determined by root-mean-square values. Antibacterial activity of the fabricated GO films toward three different bacterial species, Escherichia coli , Mycobacterium smegmatis , and Staphylococcus aureus , was evaluated in relation to surface roughness. Because of their nanoscopically corrugated nature, the wrinkled GO films exhibited excellent antibacterial properties. On the basis of our detailed observations, we propose a novel concept of the surrounded contact-based mechanism for antimicrobial activity of wrinkled GO films. It postulates formation of a mechanically robust GO surface “trap” that prompts interaction of bacteria with the diameter-matched GO sink, which results in substantial damages to the bacterial cell membrane. We believe that our approach uncovered a novel use of a promising two-dimensional material for highly effective antibacterial treatment. Graphic Abstract ACS Electronic Supporting Info
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