Responses of MSCs to 3D Scaffold Matrix Mechanical Properties under Oscillatory Perfusion Culture
Both fluid shear stress and matrix stiffness are implicated in bone metabolism and functional adaptation, but the synergistic action of these mechanical cues on the biological behaviors of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is still not well-known. In the present work, a homemade oscillatory flow device was applied to investigate the effects of matrix stiffness on MSCs survival, distribution, and osteogenic differentiation in three-dimensional (3D) conditions. Furthermore, the flow field and cell growth in this bioreactor were theoretically simulated. The results demonstrated that oscillatory shear stress significantly increased the viability and distribution uniformity of MSCs throughout the scaffold after culture for 3 weeks. Compared to static culture, oscillatory shear stress could promote the collagen secretion, mineral deposits, and osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. The findings obtained from this work indicate that the oscillatory perfusion not only provides a higher survival rate and a more uniform distribution of cells but also facilitates osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. Oscillating perfusion bioreactor culture of MSCs in 3D scaffold with optimal matrix stiffness could offer an easy-to-use but efficient bioreactor for bone tissue engineering. Graphic Abstract ACS Electronic Supporting Info
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