Nanopatterning of Group V Elements for Tailoring the Electronic Properties of Semiconductors by Monolayer Doping
Control of the electronic properties of semiconductors is primarily achieved through doping. While scaling down the device dimensions to the molecular regime presents an increasing number of difficulties, doping control at the nanoscale is still regarded as one of the major challenges of the electronic industry. Within this context, new techniques such as monolayer doping (MLD) represent a substantial improvement toward surface doping with atomic and specific doping dose control at the nanoscale. Our previous work has explained in detail the atomistic mechanism behind MLD by means of density-functional theory calculations ( Chem. Mater. 2016 , 28 , 1975). Here, we address the key questions that will ultimately allow one to optimize the scalability of the MLD process. First, we show that dopant coverage control cannot be achieved by simultaneous reaction of several group V elements, but stepwise reactions make it possible. Second, using ab initio molecular dynamics, we investigate the thermal decomposition of the molecular precursors, together with the stability of the corresponding binary and ternary dopant oxides, prior to the dopant diffusion into the semiconductor surface. Finally, the effect of the coverage and type of dopant on the electronic properties of the semiconductor is also analyzed. Furthermore, the atomistic characterization of the MLD process raises unexpected questions regarding possible crystal damage effects by dopant exchange with the semiconductor ions or the final distribution of the doping impurities within the crystal structure. By combining all our results, optimization recipes to create ultrashallow doped junctions at the nanoscale are finally proposed. Graphic Abstract ACS Electronic Supporting Info
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