Feasibility Study Exploring the Potential of Novel Battacin Lipopeptides as Antimicrobial Coatings
Colonization of medical implant surfaces by pathogenic microorganisms causes implant failure and undermines their clinical applicability. Alarming increase in multidrug-resistant bacteria poses serious concerns with the use of medical implants. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) that form part of the innate immune system in all forms of life are attractive alternatives to conventional antibiotics to treat multidrug-resistant bacterial biofilms. The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro antibacterial potency of our recently discovered lipopeptides from the battacin family upon immobilization to various surfaces. To achieve this, glass, silicon, and titanium surfaces were functionalized through silanization followed by addition of the heterobifunctional cross-linker, succinimidyl-[ N -maleimidopropionamido]-poly(ethylene glycol) ester to generate maleimide-functionalized surfaces. The lipopeptide, GZ3.27, with an added N-terminal cysteine was covalently coupled to the surfaces via a thioether bond through a Michael-type addition between the cysteine sulfhydryl group and the maleimide moiety. Success of surface immobilization and antimicrobial activity of the coated surfaces was assessed using water contact angle measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ellipsometry, scanning electron microscopy, colony forming unit assays and biofilm analysis. The lipopeptide-coated surfaces caused significant damage to the cellular envelop of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( P. aeruginosa ) and Escherichia coli ( E. coli ) upon contact and prevented surface colonization by P. aeruginosa and E. coli biofilms. The lipopeptides investigated in this study were not hemolytic to mouse blood cells in solution. Findings from this study indicate that these lipopeptides have the potential to be developed as promising antimicrobial coatings on medical implants. Graphic Abstract ACS Electronic Supporting Info
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