LSD1 Substrate Binding and Gene Expression Are Affected by HDAC1-Mediated Deacetylation
Lysine Specific Demethylase 1 (LSD1) catalyzes the demethylation of histone 3 to regulate gene expression. With a fundamental role in gene regulation, LSD1 is involved in multiple cellular processes, including embryonic development, cell proliferation, and metastasis. Significantly, LSD1 is overexpressed in multiple cancers and has emerged as a potential anticancer drug target. LSD1 is typically found in association with another epigenetic enzyme, histone deacetylase (HDAC). HDAC and LSD1 inhibitor compounds have been tested as combination anticancer agents. However, the functional link between LSD1 and HDAC has yet to be understood in detail. Here, we used a substrate trapping strategy to identify cellular substrates of HDAC1. Using inactive HDAC1 mutants, we identified LSD1 as an HDAC1 substrate. HDAC1 mediated deacetylation of LSD1 at K374 in the substrate binding lobe, which affected the histone 3 binding and gene expression activity of LSD1. The mechanistic link between HDAC1 and LSD1 established here suggests that HDAC inhibitors influence LSD1 activity, which will ultimately guide drug design targeting epigenetic enzymes. Graphic Abstract ACS Electronic Supporting Info
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