Structure Based Substrate Specificity Analysis of Heparan Sulfate 6-O-Sulfotransferases
Heparan sulfate (HS) is a sulfated polysaccharide exhibiting essential physiological functions. HS 6- O -sulfotransferase (6-OST) transfers a sulfo group to the 6-OH position of glucosamine units to confer a variety of HS biological activities. There are three different isoforms of 6-OST in the human genome. Here, we report crystal structures of the ternary complex of 6-OST with the sulfo donor analog 3′-phosphoadenosine 5′-phosphate and three different oligosaccharide substrates at 1.95 to 2.1 A resolutions. Structural and mutational analyses reveal amino acid residues that contribute to catalysis and substrate recognition of 6-OST. Unexpectedly, the structures reveal 6-OST engages HS in a completely different orientation than other HS sulfotransferases and sheds light on the basic HS requirements for specificity. These findings also contribute structural information to understand mutations in human 6-OST isoform 1 associated with the human genetic disease idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism characterized by incomplete or lack of puberty. Graphic Abstract ACS Electronic Supporting Info
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