Porous Aromatic Framework 48/Gel Hybrid Material Coated Solid-Phase Microextraction Fiber for the Determination of the Migration of Styrene from Polystyrene Food Contact Materials
A novel solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber was fabricated by a porous aromatic framework 48 (PAF-48)/gel hybrid material through a sol–gel process. PAF-48 is a porous organic framework (POF) material that was polymerized from 1,3,5-triphenylbenzene. The uniform pore structure, high surface area, continuous conjugate network, and hydrophobicity make PAF-48 expected to have special abilities to absorb and extract styrene as well as some other harmful volatile aromatic compounds (VACs). The PAF-48/gel-coated fiber was explored for the extraction of styrene and six VACs (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) from aqueous food simulants followed by gas chromatography (GC) separation. The fiber was found to be very sensitive for the determination of the target molecules with wide linear ranges (0.1–200 or 500 μg·kg –1 ), low limits of detection (LODs, 0.003–0.060 μg·kg –1 ), acceptable precisions (intraday relative standard deviation, RSD 200 times). Particularly for styrene, the PAF-48/gel-coated fiber exhibited a much lower LOD (0.006 μg·kg –1 ) compared with most of the reported fibers. Moreover, the PAF-48/gel-coated fiber had a high extraction selectivity for styrene and VACs over alcohols, phenols, aromatic amines, and alkanes and show a molecular sieving effect for the different molecule sizes. Finally, the PAF-48/gel-coated SPME fiber was successfully applied in GC for the determination of the specific migrations of styrene and VACs from polystyrene (PS) plastic food contact materials (FCMs). Graphic Abstract ACS Electronic Supporting Info
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