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Analytical chemistry v.89 no.2, 2017년, pp.1178 - 1184   SCI SCIE
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Development and Application of the Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films Technique for the Measurement of Nitrate in Soils

Cai, Chao (Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021, ) ; Williams, Paul N. (Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021, ) ; Li, Hong (Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ, ) ; Davison, William (Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ, ) ; Wei, Tian-Jiao (State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210023, ) ; Luo, Jun (State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210023, ) ; Zhu, Yong-Guan (Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021, ) ; Zhang, Hao (Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ, ) ;
  • 초록  

    Nitrate (NO 3 –N), the main plant/microbial nitrogen source, has a fast turnover in soil driven by species transformation (nitrification/denitrification) and phyto/microbiota assimilation. The technique of diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) is capable of a robust, low disturbance measurement of NO 3 –N but has not been implemented due to the absence of a binding layer suitable for deployment in soils. In this study, a new styrene divinylbenzene-based absorbent with amine functional groups (SIR-100-HP) was cast into an agarose gel support. The NO 3 –N ion selectivity of the SIR-100-HP/agarose binding layer was retained in the presence of high multivalent ion concentrations and was used successfully to acquire in situ NO 3 –N measurements in bulk soil. The kinetics of binding and the maximum binding capacity were determined. The total capacity of the DGT containing the SIR-100-HP/agarose binding phase was 667 μg of NO 3 –N. The performance of DGT was not affected by varying pH (3–8) or ionic strength (0–0.018 mol L –1 ), while anion competition effects at concentrations reflecting those in common agricultural soils were found to be negligible. Complete elution (100% efficiency) of NO 3 –N from the binding phase was achieved using a solution of 5% NaCl. This technique was validated in three contrasting soils. C DGT measurements were in excellent agreement with pore water NO 3 –N values. Two-dimensional NO 3 –N mapping of a profile of flooded rice paddy soil demonstrated the potential of this novel methodology for improved characterization of in situ N speciation for further understanding of bioavailability and biogeochemical processes of NO 3 –N in soils. Graphic Abstract ACS Electronic Supporting Info


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