Enhanced Temporal Resolution with Ion Channel-Functionalized Sensors Using a Conductance-Based Measurement Protocol
The binding of a target analyte to an ion channel (IC), which is readily detected electrochemically in a label-free manner with single-molecule selectivity and specificity, has generated widespread interest in using natural and engineered ICs as transducers in biosensing platforms. To date, the majority of developments in IC-functionalized sensing have focused on IC selectivity or sensitivity or development of suitable membrane environments and aperture geometries. Comparatively little work has addressed analytical performance criteria, particularly criteria required for temporal measurements of dynamic processes. We report a measurement protocol suitable for rapid, time-resolved monitoring (≤30 ms) of IC-modulated membrane conductance. Key features of this protocol include the reduction of membrane area and the use of small voltage steps (10 mV) and short duration voltage pulses (10 ms), which have the net effect of reducing the capacitive charging and decreasing the time required to achieve steady state currents. Application of a conductance protocol employing three sequential, 10 ms voltage steps (−10 mV, −20 mV, −30 mV) in an alternating, pyramid-like arrangement enabled sampling of membrane conductance every 30 ms. Using this protocol, dynamic IC measurements on black lipid membranes (BLMs) functionalized with gramicidin A were conducted using a fast perfusion system. BLM conductance decreased by 76 ± 7.5% within 30 ms of switching from solutions containing 0 to 1 M Ca 2+ , which demonstrates the feasibility of using this approach to monitor rapid, dynamic chemical processes. Rapid conductance measurements will be broadly applicable to IC-based sensors that undergo analyte-specific gating. Graphic Abstract ACS Electronic Supporting Info
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