Virus-Enabled Optimization and Delivery of the Genetic Machinery for Efficient Unnatural Amino Acid Mutagenesis in Mammalian Cells and Tissues
Unnatural amino acid (UAA) mutagenesis of recombinant proteins in live mammalian cells requires coexpression of the mutant target, as well as an engineered tRNA/aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase pair. The ability to readily determine the optimal relative expression levels of these three genetic components for efficient expression of the UAA-modified target is highly desirable, but remains challenging to accomplish. Here we report a facile strategy to achieve this by taking advantage of the efficient gene-delivery by a baculovirus vector, which enables systematic variation of the expression level of each genetic component in a population-wide manner. Insights gained from this study led to the design of an optimal expression system, which can be delivered into mammalian cells by a single baculovirus vector to provide significantly improved UAA incorporation efficiency at a low virus load. Furthermore, this optimized baculovirus vector was shown to enable efficient UAA mutagenesis of proteins expressed in mouse brain tissue. Graphic Abstract ACS Electronic Supporting Info
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