Attractants for management of the pine sawyer beetle Monochamus sutor, a potential vector of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus
Abstract Monochamus sutor (Linnaeus) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) is a secondary wood borer that has been hypothesized as capable of transmitting Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, the causal agent of pine wilt disease (PWD). This fact supposes a risk of spread of PWD over Europe and has created an urgent need for effective tools to detect and monitor both the nematode and the insect species that vectors it. Recent reporting of 2‐undecyloxy‐1‐ethanol as the M. sutor male‐produced aggregation pheromone has opened the possibility of developing an efficient lure for this species. It is known that some European bark beetle pheromone compounds and host volatiles kairomonally attract this species. Besides, smoke volatiles from burnt trees might play a role in M. sutor host location. In this work, field trapping experiments during 3 years in three countries (Spain, Sweden and Austria), aimed to develop an efficient pheromone‐kairomone lure operative for M. sutor management were carried out. Electroantennographic responses by M. sutor to Ips pheromones and to the Pityogenes chalcographus pheromone chalcogran were also studied. GC‐EAG recording showed that M. sutor males and females clearly responded to ipsenol and ipsdienol, and females also responded to 2‐methyl‐3‐buten‐2‐ol. Chalcogran elicited a response to M. sutor female antennae. In field tests, ipsenol was the most attractive kairomone to both sexes of M. sutor , whereas ipsdienol, cis‐verbenol and 2‐methyl‐3‐buten‐2‐ol were attractive and chalcogran was unattractive. When combined with the pheromone, most bark beetle kairomones increased catches of both sexes although chalcogran was completely ineffective. Thus, ipsenol was the strongest individual kairomone for M. sutor and the best single kairomone to be combined with the pheromone. Smoke volatile blends tested in Spain and Austria did not elicit responses, suggesting that these compounds are likely not involved in host finding by this species.
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