Reductions in Medication‐Related Hospitalizations in Older Adults with Medication Management by Hospital and Community Pharmacists: A Quasi‐Experimental Study
Objectives To evaluate the association between a system of medication management services provided by specially trained hospital and community pharmacists (Pharm2Pharm) and rates and costs of medication‐related hospitalization in older adults. Design Quasi‐experimental interrupted time series design comparing intervention and nonintervention hospitals using a mixed‐effects analysis that modeled the intervention as a time‐dependent variable. Setting Sequential implementation of Pharm2Pharm at six general nonfederal acute care hospitals in Hawaii with more than 50 beds in 2013 and 2014. All five other such hospitals served as a contemporaneous comparison group. Participants Adult inpatients who met criteria for being at risk for medication problems (N = 2,083), 62% of whom were aged 65 or older. Intervention A state‐wide system of medication management services provided by specially trained hospital and community pharmacists serving high‐risk individuals from hospitalization through transition to home and for up to 1 year after discharge. Measurements Medication‐related hospitalization rate per 1,000 admissions of individuals aged 65 and older, adjusted for case mix; estimate of costs of hospitalizations and actual costs of pharmacist services. Results The predicted, case mix–adjusted medication‐related hospitalization rate of individuals aged 65 and older was 36.5% lower in the Pharm2Pharm hospitals after implementation than in the nonintervention hospitals ( P = .01). The estimated annualized cost of avoided admissions was $6.6 million. The annual cost of the pharmacist services for all Pharm2Pharm participants was $ 1.8 million. Conclusion The Pharm2Pharm model was associated with an estimated 36% reduction in the medication‐related hospitalization rate for older adults and a 2.6:1 return on investment, highlighting the value of pharmacists as drug therapy experts in geriatric care.
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