Development and testing of novel bisphenol A-free adhesives for lingual fixed retainer bonding
Aim: To comparatively evaluate the properties of two BPA-free experimental adhesives (EXA, EXB) for lingual fixed retainer bonding versus a commercially available reference material (Transbond LR-TLR) based on BPA-compound. Materials and methods: The experimental materials were a flowable 60 per cent glass filler-filled UEDMA/TEGDMA flowable composite (EXB) and a 70 per cent glass filler-filled paste composite with PCDMA/UEDMA/TEGDMA co-monomers. The properties tested were degree of conversion (DC%), mechanical properties (Martens hardness-MH, elastic modulus-E IT , elastic index-n IT ), effect of prolonged (6 months) water storage (changes in Vickers microhardness-VHN) and pull-out strength employing a multi-stranded wire. Results: EXB showed the highest DC% (63.6 per cent), followed by EXA (50.5 per cent) and TRL (44.1 per cent), with all means differences being statistically significant ( P < 0.05). The statistical rankings of MH (MPa) and E IT (GPa) means were TLR (76.1MPa; 17.3GPa) > EXA (53MPa; 12.9GPa) > EXB (12.9MPa; 6.7GPa), whereas for n IT, EXB (40 per cent) > EXA (34.9 per cent), TLR (33.6 per cent). All materials were affected by prolonged water storage with significant differences among them in VHN. TLR was the most affected material (ΔVHN = −11 per cent), followed by EXA (ΔVHN = −6.8 per cent) and EXB (ΔVHN = −4.2 per cent). No statistically significant differences were found in the pull-out strength testing (24–24.2 N range) and failure mode (70–77 per cent mixed). Conclusion: Considering the differences between the two experimental materials, it may be concluded that the material containing the PCDMA/UEDMA/TEGDMA co-monomers may be used as an alternative to the control.
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