Incidence and predictors of clinically relevant cardiac perforation associated with systematic implantation of active-fixation pacing and defibrillation leads: a single-centre experience with over 3800 implanted leads
Aims Active-fixation leads have been associated with higher incidence of cardiac perforation. Large series specifically evaluating this complication are lacking. We sought to evaluate the incidence and predictors of clinically relevant cardiac perforation in a consecutive series of patients implanted with active-fixation pacing and defibrillation leads. Methods and results We conducted a retrospective observational study including all consecutive patients implanted with an active-fixation pacing/defibrillation lead at our institution from July 2008 to July 2015. The incidence of clinically relevant cardiac perforation and cardiac tamponade was evaluated. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify predictors of cardiac perforation. Acute and long-term management of these patients was also investigated. A total of 3822 active-fixation pacing ( n = 3035) and defibrillation ( n = 787) leads were implanted in 2200 patients. Seventeen patients (0.8%) had clinically relevant cardiac perforation (13 acute and 4 subacute perforations), and 13 (0.5%) had cardiac tamponade resolved with pericardiocentesis. None of the patients with cardiac perforation required surgical treatment. In multivariate analysis, an age >80 years (OR 3.84, 95% CI 1.14–12.87, P = 0.029), female sex (OR 3.14, 95% CI 1.07–9.22, P = 0.037), and an apical position of the right ventricular lead (OR 3.37, 95% CI 1.17–9.67, P = 0.024) were independent predictors of cardiac perforation. Conclusions Implantation of active-fixation leads is associated with a low incidence of clinically relevant cardiac perforation. Older and female patients have a higher risk of perforation as well as those patients receiving the ventricular lead in an apical position.
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