Relationship between aetiology and left ventricular systolic dysfunction in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
Background Severe left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction is an uncommon complication of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) that is associated with poor prognosis. Small observational series suggest that patients with rare causes of HCM are more likely to develop systolic impairment than those with idiopathic disease or mutations in cardiac sarcomeric protein genes. The aim of this study was to test this hypothesis by comparing the prevalence of systolic dysfunction and its impact on prognosis in patients with different causes of HCM. Methods and results 1697 patients (52 (40–63) years, 1160 (68%) males) with HCM followed at two European referral centres were studied. Diagnosis of specific aetiologies was made on the basis of clinical examination, cardiac imaging and targeted genetic and biochemical testing. The primary survival outcome was all-cause mortality or heart transplantation (HTx) for end-stage heart failure (HF). Secondary outcomes were HF-related death, sudden cardiac death, stroke-related death and non-cardiovascular death. Systolic dysfunction (LV ejection fraction <50% by two-dimensional (2D) echocardiography) at first evaluation was more frequent in rare phenocopies than in idiopathic or sarcomeric HCM (105/409 (26%) vs 40/1288 (3%), respectively (p<0.0001)). All-cause death/HTx and HF-related death were more frequent in rare phenocopies compared with idiopathic or sarcomeric HCM (p<0.0001). All-cause mortality and HF-related death were highest in patients with cardiac amyloidosis (p<0.0001). Conclusions In adults with HCM, LV systolic dysfunction is more frequent in those with rare phenocopies. When combined with age at presentation, it is a marker for specific aetiologies and is associated with poorer long-term survival.
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