Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Receptor Signaling Is Required for Optimal ATR-CHK1 Kinase Signaling in Ultraviolet B (UVB)-irradiated Human Keratinocytes
UVB wavelengths of light induce the formation of photoproducts in DNA that are potentially mutagenic if not properly removed by the nucleotide excision repair machinery. As an additional mechanism to minimize the risk of mutagenesis, UVB-irradiated cells also activate a checkpoint signaling cascade mediated by the ATM and Rad3-related (ATR) and checkpoint kinase 1 (CHK1) kinases to transiently suppress DNA synthesis and cell cycle progression. Given that keratinocytes in geriatric skin display reduced activation of the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) and alterations in DNA repair rate, apoptosis, and senescence following UVB exposure, here we used cultured human keratinocytes in vitro and skin explants ex vivo to examine how IGF-1R activation status affects ATR-CHK1 kinase signaling and the inhibition of DNA replication following UVB irradiation. We find that disruption of IGF-1R signaling with small-molecule inhibitors or IGF-1 withdrawal partially abrogates both the phosphorylation and activation of CHK1 by ATR and the accompanying inhibition of chromosomal DNA synthesis in UVB-irradiated keratinocytes. A critical protein factor that mediates both ATR-CHK1 signaling and nucleotide excision repair is replication protein A, and we find that its accumulation on UVB-damaged chromatin is partially attenuated in cells with an inactive IGF-1R. These results indicate that mutagenesis and skin carcinogenesis in IGF-1-deficient geriatric skin may be caused by defects in multiple cellular responses to UVB-induced DNA damage, including through a failure to properly suppress DNA synthesis on UVB-damaged DNA templates.
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