HIV-1 Latency-Reversing Agents Prostratin and Bryostatin-1 Induce Blood–Brain Barrier Disruption/Inflammation and Modulate Leukocyte Adhesion/Transmigration
A shock-and-kill approach involving the simultaneous treatment of HIV-1–infected patients with latency-reversing agents (LRAs) and combination antiretroviral therapy was proposed as a means to eradicate viral reservoirs. Currently available LRAs cannot discriminate between HIV-1–infected and uninfected cells. Therefore, the risks and benefits of using broad-spectrum LRAs need to be carefully evaluated, particularly in the CNS, where inflammation and leukocyte transmigration must be tightly regulated. We used a real-time impedance-sensing system to dynamically record the impact of different classes of LRAs on the integrity of tight monolayers of the immortalized human cerebral microvascular endothelial cell line hCMEC/D3. Results show that prostratin and bryostatin-1 can significantly damage the integrity of an endothelial monolayer. Moreover, prostratin and bryostatin-1 induce secretion of some proinflammatory cytokines and an increase of ICAM-1 expression. Additional studies demonstrated that prostratin and bryostatin-1 also affect adhesion and transmigration of CD4 + and CD8 + T cells as well as monocytes in an in vitro human blood–brain barrier (BBB) model. Prostratin and bryostatin-1 could thus be considered as potent regulators of BBB permeability and inflammation that influence leukocyte transport across the BBB. Altogether, these findings contribute to a better understanding of the potential risks and benefits of using a shock-and-kill approach with LRAs on the normal physiological functions of the BBB.
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