Association of passive and active smoking with pre-diabetes risk in a predominantly Hispanic population
Smoking is the leading cause of avoidable death and is associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. Previous studies on the impact of passive smoking have not been applied to a Hispanic-majority population. We investigated the association between active smoking, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and pre-diabetes risk in a New Mexico population. We hypothesized that pre-diabetes risk increases with increasing smoking status after adjustment for important covariates. We screened 219 adults from an ongoing study who were categorized according to their smoking status (never smoker, current smoker, previous smoker) and their exposure to ETS (exposed or unexposed). Glucose homeostasis status was assigned using A1c: no diabetes (A1c <5.7%), pre-diabetes (A1c 5.7–6.4%), and T2D (A1c >6.4%). Among 160 patients with complete data, 51.6% had no diabetes and 48.4% had pre-diabetes. The mean age was 44.8±13.5 years. The study population was predominantly female (64.4%), and the ethnic composition was 44.4% Hispanic, 39.4% non-Hispanic White (NHW), 10.6% American Indian, 2.5% African-American, and 3.1% other. Using a logistic model with 2-way interactions, all predicted probabilities for being at risk for pre-diabetes were significant at the 0.001 level for smoking status and ETS exposure after adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, family history of diabetes, alcohol consumption, BMI, and blood pressure. Active or passive smoking is independently associated with pre-diabetes risk.
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