Biological roles of microRNAs in the control of insulin secretion and action
microRNAs (miRNAs) are intracellular and circulating molecular components contributing to genome expression control through binding mRNA targets, which generally results in downregulated mRNA expression. One miRNA can target several mRNAs, and one transcript can be targeted by several miRNAs, resulting in complex fine-tuning of regulation of gene networks and signaling pathways. miRNAs regulate metabolism, adipocyte differentiation, pancreatic development, β-cell mass, insulin biosynthesis, secretion, and signaling, and their role in diabetes and obesity is emerging. Their pathophysiological effects are essentially dependent on cellular coexpression with their mRNA targets, which can show tissue-specific transcriptional responses to disease conditions and environmental challenges. Current knowledge of miRNA biology and their impact on the pathogenesis of diabetes and obesity is based on experimental data documenting miRNA expression generally in single tissue types that can be correlated with expression of target mRNAs to integrate miRNA in functional pathways and gene networks. Here we present results from the most significant studies dealing with miRNA function in liver, fat, skeletal muscle, and endocrine pancreas and their implication in diabetes and obesity.
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- DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/physiolgenomics.00079.2016
- American Physiological Society : 저널> 권호 > 논문
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