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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America v.114 no.4, 2017년, pp.669 - 674   SCI SCIE
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Ambivalent stereotypes link to peace, conflict, and inequality across 38 nations

Durante, Federica (Department of Psychology, University of Milano-Bicocca, 20126 Milan, Italy ); Fiske, Susan T. (Department of Psychology and Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 ); Gelfand, Michele J. (Department of Psychology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 ); Crippa, Franca (Department of Psychology, University of Milano-Bicocca, 20126 Milan, Italy ); Suttora, Chiara (Department of Psychology, University of Milano-Bicocca, 20126 Milan, Italy ); Stillwell, Amelia (Stanford University Graduate School of Business, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 ); Asbrock, Frank (Department of Psychology, Chemnitz University of Technology, 09107 Chemnitz, Germany ); Aycan, Zeynep (Department of Psychology & Faculty of Management, Koc University, 34450 Istanbul, Turkey ); Bye, Hege H. (Department of Psychosocial Science, Faculty of Psychology, University of Bergen, N-5020 Bergen, Norway ); Carlsson, Rickard (Department of Psychology, Linnaeus University, 391 82 Kalmar, Sweden ); Bjorklund, Fredrik (Department of Psychology, Lund University, 221 00 Lund, Sweden ); Dagher, Munqith (Independent Institute for Administration ); Geller, Armando ( ); Larsen, Christian Albrekt ( ); Latif, Abdel-Hamid Abdel ( ); Mahonen, Tuuli Anna ( ); Jasinskaja-Lahti, Inga ( ); Teymoori, Ali ( );
  • 초록  

    Significance Stereotypes reflect a society’s inequality and conflict, providing a diagnostic map of intergroup relations. This stereotype map’s fundamental dimensions depict each group’s warmth (friendly, sincere) and competence (capable, skilled). Some societies cluster groups as high on both (positive “us”) vs. low on both (negative “them”). Other societies, including the United States, have us-them clusters but add ambivalent ones (high on one dimension, low on the other). This cross-national study shows peace-conflict predicts ambivalence. Extremely peaceful and conflictual nations both display unambivalent us-them patterns, whereas intermediate peace-conflict predicts high ambivalence. Replicating previous work, higher inequality predicts more ambivalent stereotype clusters. Inequality and intermediate peace-conflict each use ambivalent stereotypes, explaining complicated intergroup relations and maintaining social system stability. A cross-national study, 49 samples in 38 nations ( n = 4,344), investigates whether national peace and conflict reflect ambivalent warmth and competence stereotypes: High-conflict societies (Pakistan) may need clearcut, unambivalent group images distinguishing friends from foes. Highly peaceful countries (Denmark) also may need less ambivalence because most groups occupy the shared national identity, with only a few outcasts. Finally, nations with intermediate conflict (United States) may need ambivalence to justify more complex intergroup-system stability. Using the Global Peace Index to measure conflict, a curvilinear (quadratic) relationship between ambivalence and conflict highlights how both extremely peaceful and extremely conflictual countries display lower stereotype ambivalence, whereas countries intermediate on peace-conflict present higher ambivalence. These data also replicated a linear inequality–ambivalence relationship.


  • 주제어

    stereotypes .   peace .   conflict .   inequality .   ambivalence.  

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