Cumulative effects of bamboo sawdust addition on pyrolysis of sewage sludge: Biochar properties and environmental risk from metals
Abstract A novel type of biochar was produced by mixing bamboo sawdust with sewage sludge (1:1, w/w) via a co-pyrolysis process at 400–600°C. Changes in physico-chemical properties and the intrinsic speciation of metals were investigated before and after pyrolysis. Co-pyrolysis resulted in a lower biochar yield but a higher C content in the end product compared with use of sludge alone as the raw material. FT-IR analysis indicates that phosphine derivatives containing PH bonds were formed in the co-pyrolyzed biochars. In addition, co-pyrolysis of sludge with bamboo sawdust transformed the potentially toxic metals in the sludge into more stable fractions, leading to a considerable decrease in their direct toxicity and bioavailability in the co-pyrolyzed biochar. In conclusion, the co-pyrolysis technology provides a feasible method for the safe disposal of metal-contaminated sewage sludge in an attempt to minimize the environmental risk from potentially toxic metals after land application. Highlights Sludge was pyrolyzed with bamboo sawdust for metal immobilization. Metals were transformed from highly available to stable forms after pyrolysis. Addition of bamboo sawdust in sludge co-pyrolysis minimizes the risk from metals. Co-pyrolysis with bamboo sawdust at 600°C is suitable for sludge metal stabilization. Graphical abstract [DISPLAY OMISSION]
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