Digital RT-PCR method for hepatitis A virus and norovirus quantification in soft berries
Abstract Raw fruits may harbour many pathogens of public health concern including enteric viruses, which are the leading cause of foodborne outbreaks. Recently, consumption of soft berries has been associated with increasing reports of norovirus and hepatitis A virus outbreaks in Europe. Due to their low infectious doses and low concentrations in food samples, an efficient and sensitive analytical method is required for virus detection. In this study we explored two different ways to improve the reference method for the detection of enteric viruses in soft fruits (ISO/TS 15216-1; 15216-2): an additional purification step after RNA extraction; and the detection of enteric viral genome by an absolute quantification method (microfluidic digital RT-PCR). Both of these approaches led to an improvement of enteric virus detection in soft berries by greatly lowering PCR inhibition, raising viral extraction efficiencies and enabling validation of controls using pure RNA extracts. The PCR inhibitor removal step can be easily included in the routine method. Absolute quantification by digital RT-PCR may be a relevant alternative method to standardize quantification of enteric viruses in foodstuffs. Highlights Quantification of HAV and noroviruses in red fruits Comparison of digital RT-PCR and RT-qPCR Significant reduction of PCR inhibition with additional purification step of RNA Significant reduction of PCR inhibition with RT-dPCR This study offers reliable alternative methods to quantify viruses in red fruits.
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- DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2016.11.022
- Elsevier : 저널> 권호 > 논문
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