Multi-directional adjacent wave subtraction and shifted time point mapping algorithms and their application to defect visualization in a space tank liner
We propose the multi-directional adjacent wave subtraction (MAWS), shifted time point (STP) mapping and variable time window amplitude (VTWA) mapping algorithms for crack visualization based on our finding that the processing direction of the adjacent wave subtraction with respect to crack orientation can dramatically affect crack visibility. The proposed MAWS, STP and VTWA mapping algorithms were implemented in a laser ultrasonic propagation imaging system and were applied in a nondestructive evaluation of an Al-alloy tank liner for space applications. A crack and void on the fusion zone of a weld were more effectively visualized using the proposed algorithms, and the crack could be visualized regardless of its orientation. The multi-directional processing results of the anomalous wave propagation imaging were visualized as video clips. The STP mapping algorithm, which maps the number of shifted time points to minimize the difference between adjacent waves, was developed to enhance the crack visualization capability of the system. Additionally, the multi-directional VTWA mapping algorithm performed data projection using the residuals of MAWS processing and provided stationary mapping results of crack-induced anomalous waves. The presented results demonstrate that the proposed visualization algorithms are promising techniques that do not overlook unknown crack orientations.
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