EXhype: A tool for mineral classification using hyperspectral data
Abstract Various supervised classification algorithms have been developed to classify earth surface features using hyperspectral data. Each algorithm is modelled based on different human expertises. However, the performance of conventional algorithms is not satisfactory to map especially the minerals in view of their typical spectral responses. This study introduces a new expert system named ‘EXhype (Expert system for hyperspectral data classification)’ to map minerals. The system incorporates human expertise at several stages of it’s implementation: (i) to deal with intra-class variation; (ii) to identify absorption features; (iii) to discriminate spectra by considering absorption features, non-absorption features and by full spectra comparison; and (iv) finally takes a decision based on learning and by emphasizing most important features. It is developed using a knowledge base consisting of an Optimal Spectral Library, Segmented Upper Hull method, Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) and Artificial Neural Network. The performance of the EXhype is compared with a traditional, most commonly used SAM algorithm using Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data acquired over Cuprite, Nevada, USA. A virtual verification method is used to collect samples information for accuracy assessment. Further, a modified accuracy assessment method is used to get a real users accuracies in cases where only limited or desired classes are considered for classification. With the modified accuracy assessment method, SAM and EXhype yields an overall accuracy of 60.35% and 90.75% and the kappa coefficient of 0.51 and 0.89 respectively. It was also found that the virtual verification method allows to use most desired stratified random sampling method and eliminates all the difficulties associated with it. The experimental results show that EXhype is not only producing better accuracy compared to traditional SAM but, can also rightly classify the minerals. It is proficient in avoiding misclassification between target classes when applied on minerals. Highlights New expert system (EXhype) has introduced to classify hyperspectral data. This study came out with novel way, to give input to the neural network. EXhype has learning ability as it incorporates neural network. EXhype discriminates similar spectra and avoids misclassification between targets.
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