Interactions between tectonics and fluid circulations in an inverted hyper-extended basin: Example of mesozoic carbonate rocks of the western North Pyrenean Zone (Chainons Bearnais, France)
Interactions between fracturing, fluid circulations and fluid chemistry in hyper-extended margins are still poorly described as most of them are located offshore, buried underneath post-rift sediments. The southern Aquitaine basin and the northern Pyrenees constitute an appropriate case study to investigate these interactions since a model of hyper extended margin with mantle exhumation during the Lower Cretaceous subsequently inverted was recently proposed. From a field study, we here describe three main sets of fractures (set 1 to set 3). They are correlated with main stages of the geodynamic evolution of the basin corresponding to the Liassic rifting, the Aptian-Cenomanian hyper-extension, and the Pyrenean compression. Petrographic observations, Raman and micro-thermometry analysis on fluid inclusions, ICP-MS, and isotope analysis permitted to determine chemistries, temperatures, redox conditions, gas compositions, oxygen and carbon isotopic signatures, and REE contents of parent fluids for cements precipitated during each episode. In particular saddle dolomite and chlorite precipitated in set 2 fractures during the hyper-extension corresponding to the thermal peak at temperatures higher than 300 o C. The isotopic signature, the high CO 2 content, the occurrence of H 2 S and the high salinity of parent fluids suggest ascending magmatic fluids percolating across Triassic evaporites. The late and post hyper-extensional phase is characterized by hydraulic brecciation in dolomitic formations, a decrease in temperature and salinity, a decrease in magmatic contribution in parent fluids, a closing of the diagenetic system during burial and a switch to reducing conditions during the precipitation of quartz, pyrite and calcite. The Pyrenean compressive phase associated with the third fracturing stage induced a reopening of the diagenetic system and favored a return to oxidizing conditions and infiltrations of meteoric fluids.
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