Theophylline as a new and green catalyst for the one-pot synthesis of spiro[benzo[a]pyrano[2,3-c]phenazine] and benzo[a]pyrano[2,3-c]phenazine derivatives under solvent-free conditions
A green, convenient, high yielding and one-pot procedure for the synthesis of novel spiro[benzo[a]pyrano[2,3-c]phenazine] derivatives by domino multi-component condensation reaction between 2-hydroxynaphthalene-1,4-dione, benzene-1,2-diamines, ninhydrine, and malononitrile in the presence of a catalytic amount of 1,3-dimethyl-7H-purine-2,6-dione (theophylline) as an expedient, eco-friendly and reusable solid base catalyst under thermal, microwave irradiation and solvent-free conditions. This procedure has also been applied successfully for the synthesis of benzo[a]pyrano[2,3-c]phenazines.
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