Deactivation characteristics of Ni and Ru catalysts in tar steam reforming
Abstract Tar formation resulting during lignocellulosic biomass gasification is a major impediment to utilizing biomass energy sources, in that it blocks and fouls the processing equipment; as such, any tar present in the produced syngas much be effectively removed. This study analyzes the ability of commercially available Ni and Ru based CH 4 reforming catalysts to effect tar removal and compares deactivation characteristics. Toluene was used as the model biomass tar at concentrations of 30 and 100 g/Nm 3 . Several additional parameters were also tested, including reaction temperatures (400–800 °C), space velocities (5000–30,000 h −1 ), and the steam/toluene ratios (2–20). The variation of toluene conversion and product gas composition with reaction conditions was analyzed. Overall, H 2 and CO production were favored by the Ru catalyst and generally increased with temperature. Conversion also increased with temperature, with conversions higher than 90% obtained at 800 °C. Highlights Ru-containing RUA and Ni-containing FCR-4 were tested as tar reforming catalysts. Toluene was used as the model tar at both standard and high concentrations. Both catalysts effected over 90% conversion at 800 °C for standard toluene loading. Conversion increased with steam content and decreased as space velocity increased. FCR-4 showed significantly greater coke deposition, accounting for deactivation.
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