Iningainema pulvinus gen nov., sp nov. (Cyanobacteria, Scytonemataceae) a new nodularin producer from Edgbaston Reserve, north-eastern Australia
Abstract A new nodularin producing benthic cyanobacterium Iningainema pulvinus gen nov., sp nov. was isolated from a freshwater ambient spring wetland in tropical, north-eastern Australia and characterised using combined morphological and phylogenetic attributes. It formed conspicuous irregularly spherical to discoid, blue-green to olive-green cyanobacterial colonies across the substratum of shallow pools. Morphologically Iningainema is most similar to Scytonematopsis Kiseleva and Scytonema Agardh ex Bornet & Flahault. All three genera have isopolar filaments enveloped by a firm, often layered and coloured sheath; false branching is typically geminate, less commonly singly. Phylogenetic analyses using partial 16S rRNA sequences of three clones of Iningainema pulvinus strain ES0614 showed that it formed a well-supported monophyletic clade. All three clones were 99.7–99.9% similar, however they shared less than 93.9% nucleotide similarity with other cyanobacterial sequences including putatively related taxa within the Scytonemataceae. Amplification of a fragment of the ndaF gene involved in nodularin biosynthesis from Iningainema pulvinus confirmed that it has this genetic determinant. Consistent with these results, analysis of two extracts from strain ES0614 by HPLC–MS/MS confirmed the presence of nodularin at concentrations of 796 and 1096μgg −1 dry weight. This is the third genus of cyanobacteria shown to produce the cyanotoxin nodularin and the first report of nodularin synthesis from the cyanobacterial family Scytonemataceae. These new findings may have implications for the aquatic biota at Edgbaston Reserve, a spring complex which has been identified as a priority conservation area in the central Australian arid and semiarid zones, based on patterns of endemicity.
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