Hierarchical Ru-doped sodium vanadium fluorophosphates hollow microspheres as a cathode of enhanced superior rate capability and ultralong stability for sodium-ion batteries
Novel hierarchical Ru-doped Na 3 V 2 O 2 (PO 4 ) 2 F hollow microspheres were synthesized via a low-temperature solvothermal method. The individual unique microspheres were formed from assembly of numerous nanoparticles with diameters of 20-30nm. When used as a cathode material for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs), the microspheres exhibited superior rate performance with a capacity of 72.6 mAh.g -1 at 10C. Furthermore, their rate performance could be significantly improved by coating them with a thin conductive RuO 2 layer. For instance, high specific capacities of 102.5mAhg -1 and 44.9mAhg -1 were achieved at current rates of 20C and 100C, respectively. These materials exhibited impressive long-term cycling stability. A reversible capacity of approximately 55.0mAhg -1 was maintained even after 7500 charge/discharge cycles. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations increased our understanding of how H + facilitates the formation of the hierarchical microsphere superstructure which is beneficial to achieve a good rate capability.
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