W(Nb)Ox-based efficient flexible perovskite solar cells: From material optimization to working principle
Abstract Flexible perovskite solar cell (PSC) using plastic substrate is one of the most focal points in the studies of thin-film solar cells. Low-temperature preparation of suitable electron selective layer (ESL) is the key issue in the fabrication of flexible PSCs. In this work, amorphous niobium-modified tungsten oxide W(Nb)O x was prepared as ESL for efficient flexible PSC. Modification using Nb 5+ improved the electron transport of WO x -based ESL by enhancing donor density, reducing interfacial depletion width, and minimizing trap states in the ESL. Consequently, photovoltaic performance of the simple planar flexible PSCs was improved, and high PCEs of 15.65% and 13.14% were obtained when ESLs were fabricated at 120°C and room temperature, respectively. In addition, the effect of ESL thickness on the hysteresis behavior of PSCs was carefully analyzed. A capacitance C E across the ESL in the ITO/ESL/perovskite structure was proposed. This capacitance could well indicate the effect of ESL thickness on hysteresis behavior. The proposed modification strategy and mechanism is expected to facilitate the development of novel and advanced functional materials. Highlights Amorphous niobium-modified tungsten oxide W(Nb)O x was prepared as ESL in flexible perovskite solar cells. It was observed that modification using Nb 5+ improved the electron transport in WO x -based ESL. The photovoltaic performance of the simple planar flexible PSCs achieved a high PCEs of 15.65%. A capacitance C E across the ESL was proposed to indicate the effect of ESL thickness on hysteresis behavior. Graphical abstract [DISPLAY OMISSION]
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